Bilingual Education Teaching Methodologies Ask A REL (2022)

Acosta, J., Williams, J., III, & Hunt, B. (2019). Dual language program models and English language learners: An analysis of the literacy results from a 50/50 and a 90/10 model in two California schools. Journal of Educational Issues, 5(2), 1–12. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1222762

From the ERIC abstract: “This paper examines the literacy results of English language learners (ELLs) in two California schools following either the 50/50 or the 90/10 dual language (DL) program model. The purpose of this paper is to provide a literature review of dual language programs with an analysis of two schools’ websites and literacy assessment data in order to determine the effectiveness of each program model in establishing strong foundational literacy skills and fostering the prolonged academic success of ELLs. California provides various options for the bilingual education of its increasing immigrant population. Under the umbrella of bilingual education, dual language programs aim to provide students with instruction in two languages which will allow them to become fully bilingual and develop biliteracy skills. The intended purpose of biliteracy is for students to demonstrate reading and writing proficiency in both instructional languages. Although California implements a variety of dual language program models, this paper provides an overview and comparison of the 50/50 and 90/10 models as they are implemented in two California schools with similar demographics. This paper provides an analysis of the English Language Arts/literacy results of ELLs under both program models as depicted on the California Assessment of Student Performance and Progress to determine which model is most effective in its literacy instruction of language minority students. The findings indicate that ELLs demonstrate higher levels of literacy proficiency under the 90/10 program model. These findings have implications for native language proficiency and the preservation of the mother tongue.”

August, D. (2018). Educating English language learners: A review of the latest research. American Educator, 42(3), 4–9. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1192670

From the ERIC abstract: “In this article, the author discusses the latest research on how to effectively teach English Language Learners (ELLs). This includes seven principles from a consensus report released by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The consensus report examines what the current research is about learning English from early childhood through high school, identifies effective practices for educators, and recommends steps policymakers can take to support high-quality educational outcomes for children and youth who are learning English. These principles and practices build on findings from previous reviews on the same topic as well as U.S. Department of Education best-evidence syntheses. While dual language programming for ELLs is effective for developing English proficiency and content-area knowledge in English—with the extra benefit of maintaining and developing students’ first language, validating their culture, and providing opportunities to enhance cross-cultural understanding—the article focuses on instruction delivered in English, an important component of dual language programs.”

August, D., & Shanahan, T. (Eds.) (2006). Developing literacy in second-language learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED553370

From the ERIC abstract: “Teaching language-minority students to read and write well in English is an urgent challenge in the nation’s K-12 schools. Literacy in English is essential to achievement in every academic subject-and to educational and economic opportunities beyond schooling. Compounding this challenge are increasing numbers and diversity of language-minority students. Language-minority students who cannot read and write proficiently in English cannot participate fully in American schools, workplaces, or society. They face limited job opportunities and earning power. Nor are the consequences of low literacy attainment in English limited to individual impoverishment. U.S. economic competitiveness depends on workforce quality. Inadequate reading and writing proficiency in English relegates rapidly increasing language-minority populations to the sidelines, limiting the nation’s potential for economic competitiveness, innovation, productivity growth, and quality of life. The importance of this challenge led the U.S. Department of Education’s Institute of Education Sciences to create the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth. The formal charge to the panel was to identify, assess, and synthesize research on the education of language-minority children and youth with regard to literacy attainment and to produce a comprehensive report on this literature. ‘Developing Literacy in Second-Language Learners’ is the culmination of a 4-year process that began in the spring of 2002, when the Institute of Education Sciences staff selected a panel of 13 experts in second-language development, cognitive development, curriculum and instruction, assessment, and methodology to review the quantitative and qualitative research on the development of literacy in language-minority students. This national panel identified five research topics to investigate: (1) Development of literacy; (2) Cross-linguistic relationships; (3) Sociocultural contexts and literacy development; (4) Instruction and professional development; and (5) Student assessment. The National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth systematically and rigorously examined the research on acquiring literacy in a second language. Through this process, the panel learned what is known—and what is not yet known—about the complex process of learning to read and write in a second language. Policymakers and educators can use the panel’s findings to benchmark their own practices and infuse research-based instruction into literacy programs for language-minority students. Researchers can enrich this knowledge base by focusing on the specific gaps in our knowledge, which in the future will enable U.S. schools to better educate English-language learners in English literacy”

Baker, S., Lesaux, N., Jayanthi, M., Dimino, J., Proctor, C. P., Morris, J., et al. (2014). Teaching academic content and literacy to English learners in elementary and middle school (NCEE 2014-4012). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED544783

From the ERIC abstract: “As English learners face the double demands of building knowledge of a second language while learning complex grade-level content, teachers must find effective ways to make challenging content comprehensible for students. This updated English learner practice guide, ‘Teaching Academic Content and Literacy to English Learners in Elementary and Middle School,’ provides four recommendations for teaching complex content to English learners while simultaneously building academic language and writing and oral language proficiency. This updated practice guide builds on the work of the first practice guide on English learners, expands the grade range from K-5 to K-8, and incorporates instruction in mathematics, science, and social studies, as well as literacy. With techniques found in this guide, teachers can effectively address English learners’ content and language needs by systematically—and at times explicitly—building students’ English language and literacy, while teaching history, mathematics, science, and other disciplines. The four recommendations include concrete guidance on: (1) Teaching English learners academic vocabulary intensively within the context of an engaging piece of informational text; (2) Helping English learners make sense of the content area material; (3) Supporting English learners as they learn to generate well-organized essays that are progressively longer and more complex; and (4) Providing struggling English learners with high-quality instructional interventions in reading and English language development. Like all other practice guides, this updated practice guide is based on research that has met the rigorous standards set by the What Works Clearinghouse, capitalizing on recently conducted research on content learning and academic language. The research base for this guide was identified through a comprehensive search for studies evaluating instructional practices for teaching academic content and literacy to English learners in K-8.”

(Video) Scott Thornbury – What's the latest teaching method?

Barrow, L., & Markman-Pithers, L. (2016). Supporting young English learners in the United States. The Future of Children, 26(2), 159–183. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1118555

From the ERIC abstract: “Simply put, children with poor English skills are less likely to succeed in school and beyond. What’s the best way to teach English to young children who aren’t native English speakers? In this article, Lisa Barrow and Lisa Markman-Pithers examine the state of English learner education in the United States and review the evidence behind different teaching methods. Models for teaching English learner children are often characterized as either English immersion (instruction only in English) or bilingual education (instruction occurs both in English and in the students’ native language), although each type includes several broad categories. Which form of instruction is most effective is a challenging question to answer, even with the most rigorous research strategies. This uncertainty stems in part from the fact that, in a debate with political overtones, researchers and policymakers don’t share a consensus on the ultimate goal of education for English learners. Is it to help English learner students become truly bilingual or to help them become proficient in the English language as quickly as possible? On the whole, Barrow and Markman-Pithers write, it’s still hard to reach firm conclusions regarding the overall effectiveness of different forms of instruction for English learners. Although some evidence tilts toward bilingual education, recent experiments suggest that English learners achieve about the same English proficiency whether they’re placed in bilingual or English immersion programs. But beyond learning English, bilingual programs may confer other advantages—for example, students in bilingual classes do better in their native languages. And because low-quality classroom instruction is associated with poorer outcomes no matter which method of instruction is used, the authors say that in many contexts, improving classroom quality may be the best way to help young English learners succeed.”

Carlo, M. S., Barr, C. D., August, D., Calderón, M., & Artzi, L. (2014). Language of instruction as a moderator for transfer of reading comprehension skills among Spanish-speaking English language learners. Bilingual Research Journal, 37(3), 287–310. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1047789

From the ERIC abstract: “This three-year longitudinal study investigated the role of language of instruction in moderating the relationships between initial levels of English oral language proficiency and Spanish reading comprehension and growth in English reading comprehension. The study followed Spanish-speaking English language learners in English-only literacy instruction, an early-exit bilingual program, or a late-exit bilingual program, from third through fifth grade. Students in all groups experienced significant growth in English reading comprehension. For the English-only group, initial levels of Spanish reading comprehension were not related to growth in English reading comprehension. However, for students in the two bilingually instructed groups, those who began with stronger Spanish reading comprehension skills grew faster in English reading comprehension than students without initial strong Spanish reading comprehension skills.”

Note: REL Midwest was unable to locate a link to the full-text version of this resource. Although REL Midwest tries to provide publicly available resources whenever possible, it was determined that this resource may be of interest to you. It may be found through university or public library systems.

Cheung, A. C. K., & Slavin, R. E. (2012). Effective reading programs for Spanish-dominant English language learners (ELLs) in the elementary grades: A synthesis of research. Review of Educational Research, 82(4), 351–395. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED539718

From the ERIC abstract: “This review synthesizes research on English reading outcomes of all types of programs for Spanish-dominant ELLs in elementary schools. It is divided into two major sections. One focuses on studies of language of instruction, and one on reading approaches for ELLs other than bilingual education. A total of 14 qualifying studies met the inclusion criteria for language of instruction. Though the overall findings indicate a positive but modest effect (ES=+0.19) in favor of bilingual education, the largest and longest-term evaluations, including the only multiyear randomized evaluation of transition bilingual education, did not find any differences in outcomes by the end of elementary school for children who were either taught in Spanish and transitioned to English or taught only in English. The review also identified some proven and promising whole-school and whole-class interventions, including Success for All, cooperative learning, Direct Instruction, and ELLA. In addition, programs that use phonetic small group or one-to-one tutoring have also shown positive effects for struggling readers. What is in common across the most promising interventions is their use of extensive professional development, coaching, and cooperative learning. The findings support a conclusion increasingly being made by researchers and policy makers concerned with optimal outcomes for ELLs and other language minority students: Quality of instruction is more important than language of instruction.”

Garza-Reyna, G. L. (2019). The academic preparedness of Latino students in dual language and transitional bilingual education programs. Journal of Latinos and Education, 18(4), 340–348. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1229260

(Video) ELL & ESL Teaching Strategies

From the ERIC abstract: “This causal-comparative study analyzed the college readiness of Latino ELLs educated in two different bilingual education programs, Transitional Bilingual (TB) and Dual Language (DL), by examining science and mathematics scores on the nationally recognized college entrance exam, the ACT. A statistically significant difference was found in the performance of the participants in the areas of mathematics and science via a series of t-tests. The descriptive statistics report that DL participants had a 29.6% higher probability in science and a 15.2% higher probability in mathematics of being college ready, per the Texas Uniform Admission Policy. Overall, DL participants outperformed TB participants.”

Note: REL Midwest was unable to locate a link to the full-text version of this resource. Although REL Midwest tries to provide publicly available resources whenever possible, it was determined that this resource may be of interest to you. It may be found through university or public library systems.

Goldenberg, C. (2013). Unlocking the research on English learners: What we know—and don’t yet know—about effective instruction. American Educator, 37(2), 4–11. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1014021

From the ERIC abstract: “Challenges are bound to arise as the vast majority of states strive to help English learners meet the Common Core State Standards. In calling for students to read complex texts, these new standards place an even greater emphasis on content knowledge and literacy skills than prior state standards. This review of available research will help educators bolster the efforts of English learners to understand more-demanding academic content as they also learn English.”

Hong, G., Gagne, J., & West, A. (2014). What is the optimal length of an ELL program? Paper presented at the Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness Conference, Washington, DC. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED562851

From the ERIC abstract: “This study focuses on assessing the contribution of ELL services to Spanish-speaking students’ mathematics learning in elementary schools. ELL students tend to have lower average math achievement at school entry and throughout elementary school. The term ‘ELL services’ encompasses English-as-a-second-language (ESL) programs, bilingual education programs, and other types of specialized programs for ELL students. Such students are entitled to support in the classroom until they achieve the level of English proficiency needed for full participation. Data were collected using outcome measures from math direct assessment scores. The assessment was administered in English if a student was proficient in English and was administered in Spanish if the student was proficient in Spanish but not in English. Study results indicate four or more years of ELL services on average are necessary to enable Spanish-speaking elementary students to become proficient in academic English essential for math learning. Yet a one-size-for-all recipe is practically naïve and often wasteful. Identifying the optimal length of ELL services for subpopulations of students therefore has immediate implications for ELL resource allocation.”

Martinez-Wenzl, M., Pérez, K., & Gándara, P. (2012). Is Arizona’s approach to educating its ELs superior to other forms of instruction?. Teachers College Record, 114(9), 1–32. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1001979

From the ERIC abstract: “Background: In the ‘Horne v Flores’ Supreme Court decision of June 25, 2009, the Court wrote that one basis for finding Arizona in compliance with federal law regarding the education of its English learners was that the state had adopted a ‘significantly more effective’ than bilingual education instructional model for EL students—Structured English Immersion (SEI). Purpose: This paper reviews the extant research on SEI, its definitions, origins, and its effectiveness, particularly in contrast to other instructional strategies. This paper asks, Does the research bear out the Court’s conclusion? What is the evidence that Arizona’s program of SEI is really superior to other approaches, including bilingual or dual language education? How are Arizona’s EL students faring under this ‘significantly more effective’ instructional program? Research Design: Data on the relative effectiveness of SEI are drawn from a comprehensive review of the literature. Analysis of public documents, particularly records from the Arizona English Language Learners Task Force, which was charged with selecting a research-based instructional program for English learners. Drawing from a recent ethnographic study and student achievement data, we examine the impact of structured English immersion programs on English learners in Arizona thus far, beginning with achievement outcomes. Conclusions/Recommendations: There is no research basis for the Court’s statement the SEI is ‘significantly more effective;’ at best SEI is no better or no worse than other instructional strategies, particularly bilingual instruction, when they are both well implemented. However, SEI as implemented in Arizona carries serious negative consequences for EL students stemming from the excessive amount of time dedicated to a sole focus on English instruction, the de-emphasis on grade level academic curriculum, the discrete skills approach it employs, and the segregation of EL students from mainstream peers. Moreover, the paper argues that there are, in fact, strategies that can ameliorate these problems as well as provide an additive, rather than a subtractive, educational experience for English learner and mainstream students alike.”

(Video) CLIL in Bilingual Education - Alcione Tavares

Note: REL Midwest was unable to locate a link to the full-text version of this resource. Although REL Midwest tries to provide publicly available resources whenever possible, it was determined that this resource may be of interest to you. It may be found through university or public library systems.

Perez, M., & Kennedy, A. (2014). How do changes in the language of instruction and classroom composition affect English learners? Paper presented at the Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness Conference, Washington, DC. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED562762

From the ERIC abstract: “The number of students that live in families where a language other than English is spoken has risen relative to the English-only households in the United States over the last 25 years. These students face the dual challenge of mastering English while acquiring academic skills and knowledge. The education of these students has been shaped by several national- and state- level legal decisions of the past that have required schools to take action by providing services to help linguistic minority students overcome language barriers that impede their equal participation. Those services most often take the form of either an ‘English-immersion’ approach, in which students receive all instruction in English, or employ a ‘bilingual model’ where students are initially taught in some combination of English and their native language and eventually transfer to English-only classrooms. The question of which model of instruction is more ‘effective’ has been notoriously difficult to answer and remains an open and controversial debate. The authors of this article take advantage of a policy passed in California that changed the default instructional program for ELs . Prior to 1998, most ELs were placed into bilingual education. This state-level legislation forced schools to move students to move to a different instructional setting—a change that would not had been chosen otherwise—providing a natural experiment opportunity to evaluate the effect of bilingual education versus English immersion on the academic achievement of ELs. Also analyzed is how changes in the composition of the classroom affect the academic achievement of students. Findings indicate that the achievement scores of ELs declined by the switch from bilingual education to English immersion programs, with the exception of grades 2-3 reading scores. The authors also found that there is a beneficial effect of placing ELs into classrooms with more native English speakers.”

Ríos, C., & Castillón, C. (2018). Bilingual literacy development: Trends and critical issues. International Research and Review, 7(2), 85–96. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1188732

From the ERIC abstract: “This article, a literature review of current trends in bi-literacy development and bilingual education examines published research dedicated to exploring the literacy strengths in the primary language that immigrant children bring to the classroom, and the potential of these children for becoming bilingual and bi-literate. The focus of the review is on research concentrated on school children who are developing literacy in two languages or have become literate in Spanish before starting school in an American classroom. The article identifies gaps in the literature and areas that deserve further research.”

Tazi, Z. (2014). Ready for “la escuela”: School readiness and the languages of instruction in kindergarten. Journal of Multilingual Education Research, 5(3), 11–31. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1176145

From the ERIC abstract: “School readiness has captured our attention. Across the country, policymakers, politicians, advocates, educators, and community members are forging alliances to increase children’s access to the kinds of early childhood experiences that will best prepare them for success in school. At the same time, census figures indicate that the child population in the United States is changing and young Latinos account for most of that change (O’Hare, 2011). As a population, Latinos experience greater rates of poverty and other risk factors that adversely affect school readiness (Ackerman & Tazi, 2015). In addition, many Latino children enter kindergarten speaking little or no English (Gormley, 2008). Once in kindergarten, many Latinos encounter differences in the language or languages of instruction by virtue of their status as ‘English Language Learners.’ The study described in this article looked at the patterns of school readiness on the ‘Early Development Instrument’ (EDI) in one New York school district that offered both bilingual instruction (Transitional Bilingual Education and Dual Language) and English only to Spanish-speaking kindergartners. The EDI surveys kindergarten teachers’ perceptions about children’s school readiness for First Grade across five developmental domains. Children who received bilingual instruction in kindergarten (n = 84) had higher ratings in three of the five developmental domains and were nearly four times more likely to be rated as ‘Very Ready for School’ in four or more domains than the group that received English only instruction (n = 74). All the children may have benefitted from attending kindergarten, but these findings suggest that bilingual instruction for Spanish-speaking children was a more effective approach to enhance their school readiness.”

Thompson, K. D. (2017). English learners’ time to reclassification: An analysis. Educational Policy, 31(3), 330–363. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1135773.

(Video) CO-CABE: Kathy Escamilla | Research Based Approaches for Emerging Bilingual Learners in BiLiteracy

From the ERIC abstract: “This study uses 9 years of longitudinal, student-level data from the Los Angeles Unified School District to provide updated, empirically-based estimates of the time necessary for English learners (ELs) to become reclassified as proficient in English, as well as factors associated with variation in time to reclassification. To illustrate how different aspects of proficiency develop, estimates of the time necessary for ELs to attain six separate reclassification criteria are provided. Findings corroborate prior cross-sectional research suggesting that the development of full proficiency in a second language typically takes 4 to 7 years. However, after 9 years in the district, approximately one-fourth of students had not been reclassified. There appears to be a ‘reclassification window’ during the upper elementary grades, and students not reclassified by this point in time become less likely ever to do so. Findings illustrate the crucial role that students’ initial academic language proficiencies, both in English and their primary language, play in their likelihood of reclassification. This work has implications for the design of next-generation assessment and accountability systems, as well as for instructional practices.”

Note: REL Midwest was unable to locate a link to the full-text version of this resource. Although REL Midwest tries to provide publicly available resources whenever possible, it was determined that this resource may be of interest to you. It may be found through university or public library systems.

Umansky, I. M., & Reardon, S. F. (2014). Reclassification patterns among Latino English learner students in bilingual, dual immersion, and English immersion classrooms. American Educational Research Journal, 51(5), 879–912. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED566368

From the ERIC abstract: “Schools are under increasing pressure to reclassify their English learner (EL) students to ‘fluent English proficient’ status as quickly as possible. This article examines timing to reclassification among Latino ELs in four distinct linguistic instructional environments: English immersion, transitional bilingual, maintenance bilingual, and dual immersion. Using hazard analysis and 12 years of data from a large school district, the study investigates whether reclassification timing, patterns, or barriers differ by linguistic program. We find that Latino EL students enrolled in two-language programs are reclassified at a slower pace in elementary school but have higher overall reclassification, English proficiency, and academic threshold passage by the end of high school. We discuss the implications of these findings for accountability policies and educational opportunities in EL programs.”

Umansky, I. M., Valentino, R. A., & Reardon, S. F. (2015). The promise of bilingual and dual immersion education (CEPA Working Paper No. 15-11). Stanford, CA: Stanford Center for Education Policy Analysis. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED580372

From the ERIC abstract: “One in five school-age children in the U.S. speaks a language other than English at home (Zeigler & Camarota, 2014). Roughly half of these emerging bilingual students (Garcia, 2009) are classified as English learners (ELs) when they enter school, meaning they do not meet state or district criteria for English proficiency (NCES, 2015). As the fastest growing official subgroup of students, ELs are transforming schools across the country, in cities as well as suburban and rural communities; in traditional immigrant-receiving areas as well as in new immigrant destinations. Emerging bilingual students, and the subset of them that are classified as ELs, bring with them important linguistic, social, cultural, and intellectual assets that can enrich and strengthen education for all students (González, Moll & Amanti, 2013). But questions persist around how best to ensure that students who are not yet proficient in English can thrive in school, academically, linguistically, and socially. Should ELs be taught in bilingual classrooms that promote fluency in their home language while ensuring access to core academic content and developing English language skills? Or should they be taught in English immersion classrooms in order to maximize exposure to English? How do we ensure that emerging bilingual students develop both English proficiency and strong academic skills, while maintaining and developing literacy in their home language? How can schools best build on ELs’ linguistic assets and support their educational needs?”

Valentino, R. A., & Reardon, S. F. (2015). Effectiveness of four instructional programs designed to serve English learners: Variation by ethnicity and initial English proficiency. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 37(4), 612–637. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED566267.

From the ERIC abstract: “This paper investigates the differences in academic achievement trajectories from elementary through middle school among English Learner (EL) students in four different instructional programs: English Immersion (EI), Transitional Bilingual (TB), Developmental Bilingual (DB), and Dual Immersion (DI). Comparing students with the same parental preferences but who attend different programs, we find that the English Language Arts (ELA) test scores of ELs in all bilingual programs grow at least as fast as, if not faster than, those in EI. The same is generally true of math, with the exception of DB programs, where average student scores grow more slowly than those of students in EI. Furthermore, Latino ELs perform better longitudinally in both subjects when in bilingual programs than their Chinese EL counterparts. We find no differences in program effectiveness by ELs’ initial English proficiency.”

(Video) 1st Conference on Bilingual Education 2020 - Simon Lind

Acosta, J., Williams, J., III, & Hunt, B. (2019). Dual language program models and English language learners: An analysis of the literacy results from a 50/50 and a 90/10 model in two California schools. Journal of Educational Issues, 5(2), 1–12. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1222762 From...

While dual language programming for ELLs is effective for developing English proficiency and content-area knowledge in English—with the extra benefit of maintaining and developing students’ first language, validating their culture, and providing opportunities to enhance cross-cultural understanding—the article focuses on instruction delivered in English, an important component of dual language programs.”. This updated English learner practice guide, ‘Teaching Academic Content and Literacy to English Learners in Elementary and Middle School,’ provides four recommendations for teaching complex content to English learners while simultaneously building academic language and writing and oral language proficiency.. The four recommendations include concrete guidance on: (1) Teaching English learners academic vocabulary intensively within the context of an engaging piece of informational text; (2) Helping English learners make sense of the content area material; (3) Supporting English learners as they learn to generate well-organized essays that are progressively longer and more complex; and (4) Providing struggling English learners with high-quality instructional interventions in reading and English language development.. Models for teaching English learner children are often characterized as either English immersion (instruction only in English) or bilingual education (instruction occurs both in English and in the students’ native language), although each type includes several broad categories.. Although some evidence tilts toward bilingual education, recent experiments suggest that English learners achieve about the same English proficiency whether they’re placed in bilingual or English immersion programs.. Though the overall findings indicate a positive but modest effect (ES=+0.19) in favor of bilingual education, the largest and longest-term evaluations, including the only multiyear randomized evaluation of transition bilingual education, did not find any differences in outcomes by the end of elementary school for children who were either taught in Spanish and transitioned to English or taught only in English.. From the ERIC abstract: “Background: In the ‘Horne v Flores’ Supreme Court decision of June 25, 2009, the Court wrote that one basis for finding Arizona in compliance with federal law regarding the education of its English learners was that the state had adopted a ‘significantly more effective’ than bilingual education instructional model for EL students—Structured English Immersion (SEI).. Once in kindergarten, many Latinos encounter differences in the language or languages of instruction by virtue of their status as ‘English Language Learners.’ The study described in this article looked at the patterns of school readiness on the ‘Early Development Instrument’ (EDI) in one New York school district that offered both bilingual instruction (Transitional Bilingual Education and Dual Language) and English only to Spanish-speaking kindergartners.. From the ERIC abstract: “This paper investigates the differences in academic achievement trajectories from elementary through middle school among English Learner (EL) students in four different instructional programs: English Immersion (EI), Transitional Bilingual (TB), Developmental Bilingual (DB), and Dual Immersion (DI).

The Regional Educational Laboratory Program (REL) consists of a network of ten laboratories that serve the educational needs of a designated region by providing access to high quality scientifically valid education research through applied research and development projects, studies, and other related technical assistance activities. This website provides one-stop access to information on all of the ten regional educational laboratories.

This paper provides an analysis of the English Language Arts/literacy results of ELLs under both program models as depicted on the California Assessment of Student Performance and Progress to determine which model is most effective in its literacy instruction of language minority students.. The consensus report examines what the current research is about learning English from early childhood through high school, identifies effective practices for educators, and recommends steps policymakers can take to support high-quality educational outcomes for children and youth who are learning English.. While dual language programming for ELLs is effective for developing English proficiency and content-area knowledge in English—with the extra benefit of maintaining and developing students’ first language, validating their culture, and providing opportunities to enhance cross-cultural understanding—the article focuses on instruction delivered in English, an important component of dual language programs.”. This updated English learner practice guide, ‘Teaching Academic Content and Literacy to English Learners in Elementary and Middle School,’ provides four recommendations for teaching complex content to English learners while simultaneously building academic language and writing and oral language proficiency.. With techniques found in this guide, teachers can effectively address English learners’ content and language needs by systematically—and at times explicitly—building students’ English language and literacy, while teaching history, mathematics, science, and other disciplines.. The four recommendations include concrete guidance on: (1) Teaching English learners academic vocabulary intensively within the context of an engaging piece of informational text; (2) Helping English learners make sense of the content area material; (3) Supporting English learners as they learn to generate well-organized essays that are progressively longer and more complex; and (4) Providing struggling English learners with high-quality instructional interventions in reading and English language development.. Models for teaching English learner children are often characterized as either English immersion (instruction only in English) or bilingual education (instruction occurs both in English and in the students’ native language), although each type includes several broad categories.. Although some evidence tilts toward bilingual education, recent experiments suggest that English learners achieve about the same English proficiency whether they’re placed in bilingual or English immersion programs.. From the ERIC abstract: “This three-year longitudinal study investigated the role of language of instruction in moderating the relationships between initial levels of English oral language proficiency and Spanish reading comprehension and growth in English reading comprehension.. Though the overall findings indicate a positive but modest effect (ES=+0.19) in favor of bilingual education, the largest and longest-term evaluations, including the only multiyear randomized evaluation of transition bilingual education, did not find any differences in outcomes by the end of elementary school for children who were either taught in Spanish and transitioned to English or taught only in English.. The assessment was administered in English if a student was proficient in English and was administered in Spanish if the student was proficient in Spanish but not in English.. From the ERIC abstract: “Background: In the ‘Horne v Flores’ Supreme Court decision of June 25, 2009, the Court wrote that one basis for finding Arizona in compliance with federal law regarding the education of its English learners was that the state had adopted a ‘significantly more effective’ than bilingual education instructional model for EL students—Structured English Immersion (SEI).. Those services most often take the form of either an ‘English-immersion’ approach, in which students receive all instruction in English, or employ a ‘bilingual model’ where students are initially taught in some combination of English and their native language and eventually transfer to English-only classrooms.. Once in kindergarten, many Latinos encounter differences in the language or languages of instruction by virtue of their status as ‘English Language Learners.’ The study described in this article looked at the patterns of school readiness on the ‘Early Development Instrument’ (EDI) in one New York school district that offered both bilingual instruction (Transitional Bilingual Education and Dual Language) and English only to Spanish-speaking kindergartners.. From the ERIC abstract: “This paper investigates the differences in academic achievement trajectories from elementary through middle school among English Learner (EL) students in four different instructional programs: English Immersion (EI), Transitional Bilingual (TB), Developmental Bilingual (DB), and Dual Immersion (DI).

• by Abelardo Villarreal, Ph.D. and Adela Solis, Ph.D. • IDRA Newsletter • November – December 1996 •  Parental involvement in education provides ... read more

Bilingual education is a program of instruction that uses a student’s primary language as a tool for instruction while he or she begins learning English – the second language of the student.. Bilingual education or ESL programs are required by law in Texas for students who speak little or no English and who need help in learning English and school curricula that is in English.. Parents must question the school’s bilingual education program when enrolling their children in school.. In Texas, many children in Spanish­English bilingual education programs who are not ready to take the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) test in English are taking the Spanish version and are scoring low even after four years of instruction in a bilingual education program.. Does the school value and support bilingual education as a most promising instructional program for children who are of limited English proficiency?. Parents must make sure that schools have the basic knowledge about bilingual education and that their bilingual programs adhere to recent research findings.. Parents should ask questions about the qualifications of the teachers, their commitment to preserve the integrity of the bilingual program and the opportunities in the school district to upgrade or refine the teachers’ skills to address the needs of LEP students.. Students in bilingual education and ESL programs must be taught the same curricula as students in the regular, mainstream, program.. Parents must not allow for schools to exit students prematurely from the bilingual education program.

Is a student's mother tongue a help or a hindrance when learning English? Here are all the advantages and methods for the bilingual method of teaching English!

Lessons are undertaken in the students’ native language (L1) and involve extensive translation to and from the students’ target language (L2).. As the students begin their language learning journey, their destination is visible in their language teacher.. Rather than being a hindrance, advocates of the bilingual method argue that the mother tongue of the students is the greatest resource in the language learning process.. Though the bilingual method employs the students’ native language, it’s important to note that it’s predominantly the teacher who makes use of L1.. As the teacher navigates their way through the complexities of a new language, students will feel empathy for the teacher’s language learning challenges.. This process ensures the teacher isn’t open to the common criticism of monolingual English language teachers—that they’re attempting to teach their students to do something that they’ve never achieved themselves, i.e., learn a new language.. The bilingual method has some great advantages, but other methods, such as the grammar-translation and direct methods, have theirs too.

When you are an English teacher and particularly when your students are absolute beginners, you may find that teaching in English is a real challenge. How can you teach in one language when

by Susan Verner20,093 views How can you teach in one language when your students don’t know any of that language?. But before you make the decision to teach English using their native language, you should ask yourself some questions .. Here are the questions you need to consider before you answer the English only vs. bilingual instruction question for yourself.. The first question you should ask yourself before making a decision between a bilingual classroom and an English only classroom is are you bilingual?. The question may seem silly or completely obvious, but if you don’t speak your students’ language, how can you expect to teach them in that language?. Even if you are able to hold a casual conversation in a second language, that doesn’t mean you possess the language skills necessary to teach in a professional and competent manner.. The bilingual method isn’t going to work for you if you have students that speak ten different native languages in your class.. If you are teaching overseas , however, and your students all speak the same first language you may want to consider bilingual instruction.. If your class was advertised as either English only or bilingual, it is important that you meet your students’ expectation in this respect.. Often, language programs leave it up to the individual instructors how they teach and what languages they use in the classroom.. This questions is important since part of your goal in teaching should be to prepare your students for their future language use situations.. Or will they be in a situation in which English is used alongside their native language or other languages?. Sometimes a bilingual text will help students understand English at a deeper level when they have experienced English only in class.. Other times, students rely too much on bilingual texts and it hinders their language acquisition.

What's immersion bilingual education and what can it do for students and schools? Begin your journey to student-centered, task-oriented education for all!

In a way, immersion bilingual education should be the goal of every language teacher.. Whether you are already working with your fellow teachers to establish an immersion bilingual program or you are wondering how to implement elements of bilingual immersion in your school, classroom and curriculum, this post is for you.. You learn the language by receiving instruction in the language.. It is also reasonable to assume that a “maintenance” or “transition” model will reach completion sooner than a “heritage” or “enrichment” model, which have more long-term goals.. If your goal is total immersion, all staff will need to communicate with students in the target language at all times.. Give them information on the value of immersion bilingual education programs.. Ask anyone that works in your school about your initiative for immersion bilingual education, and they will be able to tell you what it is and why it is of value to the students.

• by Adela Solis, Ph.D. • IDRA Newsletter • January 1998 •  Effective implementation of bilingual education can be defined along a ... read more

Effective implementation of bilingual education can be defined along a number of program dimensions, such as program goals, classroom organization and classroom instruction.. Bilingual teachers who aspire to be exemplary want to know “how” and “what” the experienced, effective teachers teach their limited-English-proficient (LEP) students.. These practices have been documented in professional literature for at least 10 years (Berman, et al., 1995; Collier, 1995; García, 1988; Solís, 1989).. The strategies that have been observed or shared work effectively as generalized models because the classrooms that researchers studied serve students who are fairly typical of LEP students nationwide.. Next, the teacher asks students to write.. She instructs students to use all of the scientific terms they have learned.. The writing can be in either Spanish or English.. Most students write in Spanish; some in English.. One teacher works with middle school students.. Sufficient and appropriate books and instructional materials are available in all languages used for instruction.

Learn about bilingual education in the classroom including transitional, dual immersion, and late-exit/developmental bilingual education.

Below are common bilingual education models employed in public school schools, charter schools and private institutions across the United States.. This type of bilingual education is designed to help students learning a new language pick it quicker and make the transition to begin learning math, science, and other subjects in English.. In the United States, most students enrolled in dual language immersion programs will be a 50/50 mix of English and Spanish speakers.. These programs are not very popular in the United States, but research has shown that non-English speaking students taking advantage of these programs effectively learn how to write and speak in English.. Not only do non-English speakers benefit from these programs, but English speakers do as well.. Non-English and English speaking students learn together in dual immersion bilingual education programs.. Another type of dual language program teaches students using the following steps: 1) Teachers instruct students in a second language but are able to understand students when they must ask questions in their native languages.. Students are taught in their native language for a period of time, while simultaneously they are learning a new language.. Opponents of bilingual education in the classroom believe that the bilingual education programs cost too much and students living and educated in the United States should learn English–the lingua franca of American culture and society.. Proponents of bilingual education believe that when non-English speaking students are educated in both their native language and English, they're ability to learn and speak English is greatly enhanced; they learn English in a more efficient manner and they're able to continue learning core subjects (math, history, science, etc.). Bilingual education appears to be the most effective way to teach students whose dominant, or native, language isn't English.. Proponents of bilingual education also argue that bilingualism in the United States is sometimes associated with immigration and may hold a stigma for those students who would benefit by learning in bilingual classrooms.. The act not only made bilingual education a federal law, it encouraged bilingual education by providing federal funds to schools who employed native-language instruction in the classroom.. The focus of Title III was to teach English to all students with limited English proficiency without supplemental native-language instruction.

The debate over the value of bilingual education rages on in the US. 40 years in and evidence is surfacing about the strengths and weaknesses of bilingual instruction.

Transitional Bilingual Education: Like the English immersion model, this type of program focuses on English as the target language but also integrates a limited level of support and instruction in students’ native languages.. Developmental Bilingual Education: In this approach, also known as maintenance bilingual education, teachers work with students at their current levels in their native languages, while at the same time providing instruction in English so the students can ultimately achieve fluency in both languages.. Krashen views immersive English instruction without primary language support as ineffective.. Some critics of bilingual education point to programs in which students take a long time to learn English, or situations in which students seem to lag in both their native and target languages.. A successful bilingual education program must have quality resources and well-trained teachers who can model fluency in both home and target languages.. Based on these outcomes, the National Association for Bilingual Education (NABE) website has observed desirable qualities in bilingual education programs, among them:. In Libia Gil and Sarah Bardack’s paper, “Common Assumptions vs. the Evidence: English Language Learners in the United States,” the authors observe that many people, including educators, assume that good English-language instruction is enough for all students, regardless of their linguistic and cultural backgrounds.. The authors cite evidence indicating the contrary: to experience success, ELLs require additional supports, differentiated instruction, targeted instruction in academic language, and teachers knowledgeable about second-language acquisition.. targeted, individualized ESL instruction sheltered English instruction during core curricular classes quality instruction in students’ primary languages instruction in students’ first languages. Support English with students’ primary languages in a targeted way.. Model and teach conversational as well as academic English.. If you hold a bachelor’s degree, you can enter a certification or master’s program in a university’s education department.

Monday, September 22, 1997 Bilingual-teaching methods should be supported BILINGUAL: Need better training, more instructors for system to be a success By Alfredo Artiles and Concepcion Valadez Bilingual education: What is it?

Curiously, other than those directly. involved in bilingual education – parents, educators and students –. in this country, most people who have strong opinions on bilingual. education seem to know little about the specifics of it.. The bi in bilingual education means students will be working. with two languages.. Transition promotes a. language shift to English and induces the loss of the students’. first language.. In bilingual-education, or "English. as a Second Language," classes, students acquire English in a. paced, orderly way.. In bilingual-education programs in this country, students who. begin their schooling in kindergarten speaking no English and who. receive initial academic instruction in their primary language can. make a transition to instruction in English after three years with. language assistance.. If students are successful in school,. they’ll stay in school and they are likely to be more fluent in. English than in their first language by the time they reach sixth. grade.. The factor of socioeconomic class is key in schools’ attitude. against first languages in this country and the difficulty of. acquiring English without bilingual education.. Her writings on bilingual. education and minority language education have appeared in various. education publications.

Emergent Bilingual Students are a major part of Texas education that we, as educators must begin to service better than what we have been in the past.

In Child Trends’ 2014 study, the Academic Achievement of English Language Learners , Dr. David Murphey points to an achievement gap between EB students and non-EB students in Texas: only 36% of fourth grade EB students scored at or above a basic level in reading compared to 70% of non-EB students and 46% of eighth grade EB students scored at or above a basic level in math compared to 82% of non-EB students.. You might set a goal for an EB student to read at a higher level by the end of the year or for the student to learn and use new content-specific vocabulary words.. EB students have to remember new vocabulary words on top of new content, so having the relevant vocabulary words posted around the classroom will help EB students remember new vocabulary.. Be sure to call on your EB students just as often as you call on your non-EB students even if your EB students are shy or hesitant to speak up.. Teachers can easily incorporate this strategy into their general education course; EB students will work on their language skills and native English speaking students will sharpen their literacy skills.

"Bilingual Education and Bilingualism" published on by null.

This article presents a selection of the key literature on bilingualism and bilingual education and gives readers access to the international research on the multiplicity of topics that make up these fields.. also takes a balanced approach to the efficacy of bilingual education, highlighting both its significant accomplishments, as well as the ongoing challenges bilingual education programs face, particularly in relation to their pedagogical and assessment practices.. The text is written from a bilingual practitioner’s perspective and comprises chapters on bilingual education policy, practice, pedagogy, and the assessment of bilinguals, with particular (although not exclusive) reference to the US context.. NNNThis comprehensive 500,000-word encyclopedia comprises four key sections: individual bilingualism, languages in society, languages in contact in the world, and bilingual education.. NNNThis volume reviews the research and theory relating to instruction and assessment of bilingual pupils, focusing not only on issues of language learning and teaching but also on how wider power relations affect patterns of teacher-pupil interaction in the classroom.. In Bilingual education: The Encyclopedia of Language and Education .. May outlines what research has to say about the most effective bilingual education approaches; however, he also highlights how this research is regularly ignored, particularly by opponents of bilingual education in wider public and policy debates.

For those who have any doubts on the efficacy of bilingual education, below is a summary of the evidence from over more than 20 years.  I will follow up with my summary of why it works in a future …

Studies that compare bilingual instruction with English-only instruction demonstrate that language-minority students instructed in their native language as well as in English perform better, on average, on measures of English reading proficiency than language-minority students instructed only in English.. “Empirical evidence considered here indicates that bilingual education is more beneficial for ELL [English language learner] students than all-English approaches such as ESL [English as a second language] and SI [Structured immersion].. Moreover, students in long-term DBE [Developmental bilingual education] programs performed better than students in short-term TBE [transitional bilingual education] programs.” (p.19). Abstract: This article reviews the current policy context in the state of Arizona for program options for English language learners and produces a meta-analysis of studies on the effectiveness of bilingual education that have been conducted in the state in or after 1985.. The study presents an analysis of a sample of evaluation studies ( N = 4), which demonstrates a positive effect for bilingual education on all measures, both in English and the native language of English language learners, when compared to English-only instructional alternatives.. We conclude that current state policy is at odds with the best synthesis of the empirical evidence, and we recommend that current policy mandating English-only and forbidding bilingual education be abandoned in favor of program choices made at the level of the local community.. “After 4 years in their respective programs, students in ALA [Academic Language Acquisition, a form of transitional bilingual education] and SEI [Structured English Immersion] classes displayed only nominal differences, at best, in their performance on various achievement indicators.. “On aggregate, the research summarized in this section indicates that both native Spanish speakers and native English speakers in TWI [two-way immersion] programs perform as well or better than their peers educated in other types of programs, both on English standardized achievement tests and Spanish standardized achievement tests.” (p.30). “Enrichment 90-10 and 50-50 one-way and two-way developmental bilingual education (DBE) programs (or dual language, bilingual immersion) are the only programs we have found to date that assist students to fully reach the 50 th percentile in both L1 and L2 in all subjects and to maintain that level of high achievement, or reach even higher levels through the end of schooling.. “The accumulated wisdom of research in the field of bilingualism and literacy tends to converge on the conclusion that initial literacy instruction in a second language … carries with it a higher risk of reading problems and of lower ultimate literacy attainment than initial literacy instruction in a first language.”. A meta-analysis of the Rossell and Baker review of bilingual education research.. The first predictor of long-term school success is cognitively complex on-grade-level academic instruction through students’ first language for as long as possible (at least through Grade 5 or 6) and cognitively complex on-grade-level academic instruction through the second language (English) for part of the school day, in each succeeding grade throughout students’ schooling….. Executive summary: Longitudinal study of structured English immersion strategy, early-exit and late-exit transitional bilingual education programs for language-minority children.. When controlled for methodological inadequacies, participation in bilingual education programs consistently produced differences favoring bilingual education.”

Methodology - A Multiple Case Study on the Implementation of the Bilingual Education Program in

The researcher used a multiple case study research. Therefore, qualitative studies. propose research questions that are complex and broad, in order to best learn from participants’. experiences (Creswell, 2012).. The following research questions were used to guide this qualitative exploration of how. the MoE bilingual education program is implemented in private bilingual schools in the. of implementing the bilingual education program in a number of K–12 private schools in the. Sultanate of Oman and to identify factors that contribute to the implementation of this education. program in K–12 private schools in the Sultanate, and their impact on student learning.. qualitative research methodology and a multiple embedded case study research design were used. to explore the complex experiences of implementing the bilingual education program in K–12. private schools in Oman.. components of the prism model, the impact that the curriculum and teaching strategies have on. additive bilingualism and effective student learning, and on the role that the teaching in both. languages of instruction has on students’ academic success.. According to Yin (2014), case study research generally answers how and why questions. about contemporary issues that do not require manipulation of behavioral events and this was a. close match with the two chosen research questions of the present multiple case study on the. implementation of the bilingual program in private schools in Oman.. For this study about the bilingual program implementation in schools. and the factors that might affect this, a qualitative methodology provided an in-depth inquiry into. stakeholders’ experiences, derived from data collected from MoE documentation, semistructured. interviews with participants and classroom observations.. Therefore, a qualitative multiple embedded case study design that includes. visits to schools for data gathering through classroom observations and open-ended interviewing. with stakeholders in this overall case study design, would yield further understanding of what the. nature of the influences of MoE and private school-based factors on the bilingual education. program in the Sultanate of Oman and how these influence the effective implementation of the. program for student learning.. According to Creswell (2013),. there are five approaches to qualitative research: narrative research, ethnographic research,. phenomenological research, grounded theory research, and case study.

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