C Tutorial - Learn C Programming Language (2022)

C Tutorial

C is a widely used programming language. It is considered as the base for other programming languages. This C Tutorial helps programmers with C basics like environment setup, variables, operators, conditional statements, control statements, looping statements, string operations, basic IO operations, file operations, etc. with well detailed C Programs as examples.

C Programming for Beginners

Along with the above said topics, you will get the intuition about the programming approach in solving problems with the help of C language.

C Tutorial - Learn C Programming Language (2)

C Programming Language

About

C is a general purpose, procedure oriented programming language developed in 1972 by Dennies M.Ritchie at Bell laboratories of AT&T(American Telephone & Telegraph) located at U.S.A.

(Video) C Programming Tutorial for Beginners

C language is developed for creating system applications that interacts directly to the hardware devices such as drivers, kernels, etc. Initially, C language was developed to program the Unix Operating system. C language has overcome the problems of previous languages such as B, BCPL.

Introduction to C Programming

C programming is one of the most powerful languages. It is used as a base for other languages. Most of the languages such as C++, Java, etc., follow C syntax.

C programming language can be defined in different ways. They are :

  • Sequential Programming (Sequential flow of program execution)
  • Imperative Programming Language (Changes the state of program using statements)
  • Procedural Language (follows series of steps or procedures )
  • Structured Programming Language(break a program into parts or modules)
  • System Programming Language (used to do low level programming )
  • Mid-level Programming Language (supports features of both low and high level languages)

Sequential Programming

In sequential programming, the execution of statements is done sequentially from top to bottom, one by one. In C programming, the execution generally starts at main method and executes the statements inside it one by one from top to bottom. Any control statements, conditional statements, looping statements or functional calls makes the execution flow jump to a particular location in the program.

Imperative Language

In an imperative language, the state of the program is altered with the help of statements executed one by one. In C program, the state of the program is stored in the variables and the statements in modifying the state of the program which eventually helps in solving a problem.

Procedural Language

C is also known as a procedural language because it specifies a series of steps or procedures for a program to solve a problem. A programmer can group a set of statements in a function or routine (also called procedure). The procedure can be called any number of times from anywhere in the program. This helps the programmer to organize the code in modules which could be reusable and improve the understandability of the program.

(Video) C Programming For Beginners | Learn C Programming | C Tutorial For Beginners | Edureka

Structured Programming

C is called structured programming language because to solve a large problem, c programming language divides a problem into smaller modules called functions or procedures.

For example, to calculate student percentage, some of the procedures are input student marks, add marks, calculate percentage, display result.

System Programming

System programming language is used to create computer software. C language can be used to do low level programming like driver, firmware, kernel, etc. System software interacts directly with hardware devices such as OS, drivers etc. Widely used Linux Kernel is written in C and Assembly programming languages. Most of extreme gaming applications use C programming for low latency.

Mid-level Programming

A low level programming language (like assembly) is more machine friendly. Though the instruction set is limited, it takes lot of effort to expertise in a low level programming language and takes more number of lines to code to solve a problem.

A high level programming language (like COBOL,PASCAL,BASIC, etc.) is more user friendly. The syntax and programs written are readable and understandable with less effort and also require less number of lines to code to solve a problem.

When it comes to C programming language, with the features it provide, it falls in between low and high programming languages. So, it is known as middle level language because it actually binds the gap between a low level language (machine/assembly language) and high level language.

(Video) C Programming Tutorial | Learn C programming | C language

Features of C Programming Language

Some of the features of C Programming are :

  • Simple
  • Portable (machine independent)
  • Fast (Requires relatively fewer machine cycles)
  • Pointers
  • Recursion
  • Extensible
  • Function rich libraries

Simple

C programming has a syntax that is very simple to understand and remember.

Portable

Unlike assembly language, c programscan be executed in many machineswith little bit or no change. But it is not platform-independent like Java.

Fast

As it can communicate directly with the hardware, the statements of C programming resolve to very few lines of machine code which makes compilation and execution time faster.

Pointers

Pointers will help us to interact with the memory directly. A pointer is a variable which points to the address of the another variable.We can use pointers for memory, structures, arrays, etc.

Recursion

Recursion is the process of repeating items in a self-similar way. Recursion allows you to call a function inside the same function. It provides code re-usability for every function and there are certain problems which could be solved easily through recursion. We shall go through them while we learn recursion in C.

(Video) Learn C in minutes (lesson 0)

Extensible

C language is extensible because itcan easily adopt new features. You can write your own new functions, create a library from those and add to the C language locally.

Function Rich Libraries

C programming is a collection of functions and are supported by C libraries. We can also create our own function and add it to C library.

Applications of C programming

With amazing features that C language has, it attracted a larger developer community and has found applied in many areas of computing and system software. Following are some of those :

  • Operating systems
  • Development of new programming language
  • Computational platform
  • Embedded systems
  • Graphics and games

C Tutorials

Basics

  • C Datatypes
  • C Variables
  • C Constants
  • C Structures
  • C Unions
  • C typedef

Input / Output

  • C – Read String using scanf()
  • C – Read Integer using scanf()
  • C – Read Hexadecimal Number using scanf()
  • C – Read Float using scanf()
  • C – Read a Single Character using scanf()
  • C – Read Multiple Values form a Single Line using scanf()

Decision Making

  • C If
  • C If-Else
  • C Switch Case
  • C Ternary Operator

Loops

  • C Loops
  • C While Loop
  • C Do-while Loop
  • C For Loop
  • C break
  • C continue

Operators

C Operators

  • C sizeof
  • C Arithmetic Operators
  • C Logical Operators
  • C Bitwise Operators
  • C Relational Operators

Arithmetic Operators

  • C Addition Operator
  • C Subtraction Operator
  • C Multiplication Operator
  • C Division Operator
  • C Modulus Operator
  • C Increment Operator
  • C Decrement Operator

Strings

  • C – Reverse a String
  • C – String Length
  • C – Compare Strings

Arrays

  • C – Initialize Array
  • C – Array Length
  • C – Array While Loop
  • C – Array For Loop
  • C – Sort Array of Integers
  • C – Sort Array of Strings
  • C – Check if Array contains Specified Element
  • C – Find Index of Specific Element in Array

Files

  • C – Read File
  • C – Write to File
  • C – Delete File
  • C – Concatenate Files

Sorting Programs

  • C Program – Bubble Sort
  • C Program – Insertion Sort

C Programs

  • C Program – Find Factorial of a Number
  • C Program – Find Sum of Two Numbers

Conclusion

In this C Tutorial, we have seen a brief explanation about the C programming language, its features and some of the real world applications. In our subsequent C Tutorials, we shall dive into setting up the environment for C programming, and basics of C programming.

FAQs

How can I learn C language easily and perfectly? ›

Get started with C. Official C documentation - Might be hard to follow and understand for beginners. Visit official C Programming documentation. Write a lot of C programming code - The only way you can learn programming is by writing a lot of code.

Can I learn C language in 10 days? ›

Likewise, the educational program isn't excessively intricate or tedious to follow, as all you require is to experience a few subjects every day and you'll cover the whole schedule in basically 10 days. Along these lines, plunge into the C language world and improve your programming abilities for new job openings!

Is C language hard to learn? ›

C is more difficult to learn than JavaScript, but it's a valuable skill to have because most programming languages are actually implemented in C. This is because C is a “machine-level” language. So learning it will teach you how a computer works and will actually make learning new languages in the future easier.

How long it will take to learn C? ›

not more than 2-3 months if your beginner. if you spend 2hrs per day, enjoy learning. depends on you. Typically you will need around 10 to 15 days to get a hang of the language and another 20 days to get control on it.

Can I learn C in a week? ›

That is simply not possible. You could learn HTML, CSS or any other simple language in a week but C is an OOP language meaning it has tons of concepts to learn which for a beginner takes a lot of time to understand no matter how intelligent you are. C for an average person is about 6–8 months of learning.

How can I become expert in C? ›

C Programming Best Practices
  1. 15 Tips to improve your coding skills for C.
  2. Get more details about Standard Library Functions in C.
  3. Use logical variable names to avoid any confusion.
  4. Don't forget to check a complete guide for Variables in C.
  5. Explore how Escape Sequence in C make your coding better.

Should I learn C++ or C first? ›

There is no need to learn C before learning C++. They are different languages. It is a common misconception that C++ is in some way dependent on C and not a fully specified language on its own. Just because C++ shares a lot of the same syntax and a lot of the same semantics, does not mean you need to learn C first.

Can I learn C language in 1 month? ›

Originally Answered: Can I learn C language in one month? Yes, of course you can. C is easy to learn and code.

Is C good for beginners? ›

As I have said, C is a powerful, general-purpose programming language, and it's also a great language to learn when you start with programming. It gives you a lot more control over how your program uses memory, which is a tricky part but also very important if you want to become a better programmer.

Why is C so hard? ›

It is hard to learn because: It has complex syntax to support versatility. It is a permissive language—you can do everything that's technically possible, even if not logically right. It is best learned by someone who already has a foundation with C programming.

Is C harder than Python? ›

Syntax of Python programs is easy to learn, write and read. The syntax of a C program is harder than Python.

How do I start learning C? ›

To get started with C or C++, you will want a compiler—although nowadays you can also learn C online by experimenting with “hello world” C projects in-browser. Compilers are programs that can be run through command-line interfaces (CLIs).

Is C++ harder than C? ›

Or Which is better C or C++? Answers: Actually, both are difficult and both are easy. C++ is built upon C and thus supports all features of C and also, it has object-oriented programming features.

What is the hardest programming language? ›

Malbolge. Malbolge is the toughest programming language as it took at least two years to write the first Malbolge program. It is a difficult one as it uses an obscure notation, and it is a self-modifying language that results in erratic behaviour.

Which programming language should I learn first as a beginner? ›

JavaScript. JavaScript is the most popular programming language in the world for web development, and it's one of the easiest to learn. It's also one of the few languages that can be used on both the front-end and back-end of web development.

Can I learn C language in 2 days? ›

You can learn anything in two days. It's becoming a master at it takes hard work, perseverance and grit.

What should I learn before C language? ›

C programmers can have a deeper understanding of the way code affects systems, and find learning other programming languages easier as a result.
  1. Learn the Basic Variable Types. Data comes in different types. ...
  2. Learn the Operators. ...
  3. Use the Standard Libraries. ...
  4. C Is Unforgiving. ...
  5. Debugging Is Your Best Friend.
Apr 5, 2019

How can I master in C programming? ›

A step by step guide to master the C Programming language with simple and easy to understand examples.
...
This course includes:
  1. 8.5 hours on-demand video.
  2. 4 articles.
  3. 2 downloadable resources.
  4. Full lifetime access.
  5. Access on mobile and TV.
  6. Certificate of completion.

How do I memorize a program? ›

The best way to memorize is by systematic and constant repetition:
  1. first repetition — right after reading.
  2. second repetition — in 20-30 minutes after first repetition.
  3. third repetition — in a day after the second repetition.
  4. fourth repetition — in 2-3 weeks after the third repetition.
May 19, 2015

Is C harder than Java? ›

C is a procedural, low level, and compiled language. Java is an object-oriented, high level, and interpreted language. Java uses objects, while C uses functions. Java is easier to learn and use because it's high level, while C can do more and perform faster because it's closer to machine code.

Which is the easiest programming language? ›

The 6 Easiest Programming Languages to Learn
  • Python. Python is among the most prevalent programming languages used today. ...
  • Ruby. Ruby is easy to use, and its syntax mirrors Python's. ...
  • Java. ...
  • JavaScript. ...
  • PHP. ...
  • PowerShell. ...
  • HTML. ...
  • CSS.

Is learning C necessary? ›

No it is not necessary you can learn any programming languages before learning C language. You can start learning with object oriented programming languages like java/C++. But before learning any programming languages I would recommend you to learn C language because it is easiest language.

Which one is easy C or Java? ›

1) Java is simpler, the syntax is much more readable than C, C++ or any other language. 2) Java is good to learn Object-Oriented programming, but not so good for procedural one, prefer C there.

Is C or C++ better? ›

Compared to C++, C is the simpler and ultimately faster programming language. C is procedural and does not support classes and objects, meaning it has less functionality than C++. This allows you to spend more time focusing on what you can do with C's libraries, especially at the OS level.

Is it worth learning C in 2022? ›

Is C Worth Learning in 2022? C is worth learning in 2022 because it is easy to grasp. It gives you basic knowledge about the inner workings of computer systems and the core concepts that drive programming.

Which coding language is best? ›

JavaScript and Python, two of the most popular languages in the startup industry, are in high demand. Most startups use Python-based backend frameworks such as Django (Python), Flask (Python), and NodeJS (JavaScript). These languages are also considered to be the best programming languages to learn for beginners.

What is C used for today? ›

It is used in developing an operating system. Operating systems such as Apple's OS X, Microsoft's Windows, and Symbian are developed using 'C' language. It is used for developing desktop as well as mobile phone's operating system. It is used for compiler production.

Should I learn Python or C first? ›

Speaking as someone who mainly codes in C and Python, I would recommend Python for beginners. Python has an easy syntax, error messages are helpful and you don't have to deal with all the gritty details of C that will only make it more difficult to understand the basic concept of programming.

Is C the most powerful language? ›

The C Language

C is one of the most powerful "modern" programming language, in that it allows direct access to memory and many "low level" computer operations. C source code is compiled into stand-a-lone executable programs.

Should I learn C before Python? ›

No, C is not a prerequisite to learn python. The two languages aren't too closely related, their syntax is quite different. At first glance, Java, C++, C# or even PHP and JavaScript will look more familiar to a C programmer than python.

How can I learn C for free? ›

9 Best Free C Programming Courses for Beginners from Udemy Coursera
  1. 9 Best Free C Programming Courses for Beginners from Udemy Coursera. ...
  2. Quickstart guide for C programming [Udemy Free Course] ...
  3. C Programming Language STEP by STEP — Part 1 [FREE Course] ...
  4. Get Started with Programming in C: Full Course [FREE Course]
Apr 11, 2021

How do I start programming? ›

14 Step Roadmap for Beginner Developers
  1. Familiarize Yourself with Computer Architecture and Data Basics.
  2. Learn How Programming Languages Work.
  3. Understand How the Internet Works.
  4. Practice Some Command-Line Basics.
  5. Build Up Your Text Editor Skills with Vim.
  6. Take-up Some HTML.
  7. Tackle Some CSS.
  8. Start Programming with JavaScript.
Oct 6, 2021

Can I learn C per month? ›

Originally Answered: Can I learn C language in one month? Yes, of course you can. C is easy to learn and code.

How can I master in C programming? ›

A step by step guide to master the C Programming language with simple and easy to understand examples.
...
This course includes:
  1. 8.5 hours on-demand video.
  2. 4 articles.
  3. 2 downloadable resources.
  4. Full lifetime access.
  5. Access on mobile and TV.
  6. Certificate of completion.

What should I learn before C language? ›

C programmers can have a deeper understanding of the way code affects systems, and find learning other programming languages easier as a result.
  1. Learn the Basic Variable Types. Data comes in different types. ...
  2. Learn the Operators. ...
  3. Use the Standard Libraries. ...
  4. C Is Unforgiving. ...
  5. Debugging Is Your Best Friend.
Apr 5, 2019

Which one is easy C or Java? ›

1) Java is simpler, the syntax is much more readable than C, C++ or any other language. 2) Java is good to learn Object-Oriented programming, but not so good for procedural one, prefer C there.

Can I learn C language in 2 days? ›

You can learn anything in two days. It's becoming a master at it takes hard work, perseverance and grit.

Should I learn Python before C? ›

No, C is not a prerequisite to learn python. The two languages aren't too closely related, their syntax is quite different. At first glance, Java, C++, C# or even PHP and JavaScript will look more familiar to a C programmer than python. Python is more similar to Ruby and CoffeeScript both in syntax and philosophy.

Videos

1. Learn C Programming In Tamil | Complete C Tutorial in One Video Tamil
(Tutor Joe's Stanley)
2. Running First C++ program on VS CODE , C++ programming , Hello World Program @C++ Programming
(excellence Study YT)
3. Learn C Programming with Dr. Chuck (feat. classic book by Kernighan and Ritchie)
(freeCodeCamp.org)
4. C Programming Tutorial 1 - Intro to C
(Caleb Curry)
5. C Programming All-in-One Tutorial Series (10 HOURS!)
(Caleb Curry)
6. C Language Tutorial for Beginners (with Notes & Practice Questions)
(Apna College)

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