Introduction to Rust Programming Language - GeeksforGeeks (2022)

Rust is a blazing fast and memory-efficient static compiled language with a rich type system and ownership model. It can be used to power performance-critical services while guaranteeing memory-safety and thread-safety, empowering developers to debug at compile-time. In addition to that Rust has great documentation and a user-friendly compiler with top-end tools like integrated package managers and multi-editor with features like type inspection and auto-completion. Rust prevents all the crashes, and it is very interesting that rust is safe by default like JavaScript, Ruby, and Python. This is much powerful than C/C++ because we cannot write the wrong parallel code you can never see fault in rust. It is very fast in representing a lot of programming paradigms very well.

But the question arises as there are already so many programming languages like Python, C++, Java, etc, then why the need for developing a new programming language. The answer to this is the other programming language has a lot of control over the hardware that you are running, like, you can optimize it well, translate directly to assembly code, But it’s not very safe.

So rust provides us all the controls that we can have and all the levels of security that we can achieve.

Rust is using Rust which means the all the standard compiler the libraries are written in rust, there is a bit of use of C programming language but most of them is Rust. The big project of Rust is “servo”, It is a project to write out the totally parallel layout engine like things like a gecko as Firefox or WebKit in safari.

Servo built the layout engine something to render HTML from bottom to top.

Functions in Rust:

Functions are the block of reusable code that can perform similar related actions. You have already seen one of the most important functions in the language: the main function, which is the entry point of many programs. You’ve also seen the “fn” keyword, which allows you to declare new functions. Rust code uses snake case as the conventional style for function and variable names. In snake case, all letters are lowercase and underscore separate words.


fn functionname(arguments){ code}
  • To create a function we need to use the fn keyword.
  • The function name is written after the fn keyword
  • Arguments are passed after function name inside parenthesis
  • You can write function code in function block

Example: The below function simply prints “Hello, World!” in the console:


fn main() {

println!("Hello, world!");



Hello, World!

Concept of Ownership:

The concept of ownership is that when you own something you can decide to pass it to someone else, if you have a book, and you have done reading it you can permanently give it to someone and not worry about it.


fn helper() -> Box<int> {

let three = box 3;

return three;


fn main() {

let my_three = helper();


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Concept of Borrowing:

Owned values in rust can be borrowed to allow usage for a certain period of time The “&” sign represents the borrowed reference. Borrowed values have a lifetime and are valid for that time only. Borrowing prevents moving. While there is an active borrow I can not transfer ownership. I still own it but cannot transfer it until I handed it in to really relinquish that borrowed.


let a: &int;


let b =3;

a =&b;


Here “a” and “b” has a different lifetime, so it will not work.


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let a: &int;

let b=3;

a = &b;

Here “a” and “b” have the same life, so it will work. Borrow can be nested. Through cloning, borrowed values can become owned.

Memory management in Rust:

  1. Rust has fine-grain memory management but is automatically managed once created.
  2. In Rust when you allocate memory you never have to really free it you can decide when to free it but never call it. Rust takes care of it automatically.
  3. Each variable has a scope it is valid for, and it gets automatically deallocated once it goes out of scope.
  4. In rust, each program is allocated memory from the operating system.
  5. Rust also has a shared memory where we can have a reference piece of data, we can use ownership to keep track of reference count.

Different memory :


  • It is the biggest memory block and is managed by the rust ownership model.
  • At this place, all the dynamic data is stored.


  • All values in rust are allocated on the stack.
  • At this, the static memory is allocated by default.
  • There is one stack per thread.
  • It includes structures and pointers to dynamic data.


Values in rust are immutable by default and must be tagged as being mutable(if needed).


The above example will show an error because we have not tagged it as mutable.


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let mut x = 2;

x = 9;

This will work fine as we have tagged it as being mutable. As in this case we are explicitly mutating it.

Structure in Rust

The structure is a user-defined data type in rust that is used to combine different data items of a different type. Structure defines data as a key-value pair. The struct keyword is used to define Structures in Rust.


struct Name_of_structure { field1:data_type, field2:data_type, field3:data_type}



struct Employee {

name: String,

company: String,

employee_id: u32,

profile: String


fn main() {

let value = Employee {

name: String::from("Geek"),

company: String::from(""),

employee_id: 007,



println!("Employee: {} of {} Company bearing EmployeeID {} is of {} level.",

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Employee: Geek of Company bearing EmployeeID 7 is of Manager level.

This is an example of how we create structures in rust. This will compile perfectly.


A tuple in rust is a finite heterogeneous compound data type, meaning it can store more than one value at once. In tuples, there is no inbuilt method to add elements into a tuple. We can use the index to get the value of a tuple, and we also can not iterate over a tuple using for loop.

Tuples in Rust are defined using small brackets as shown below :

Syntax: ("geeksforgeeks", 1, 'geek')



fn main() {

let gfg = ("cp", "algo", "FAANG", "Data Structure");

println!("complete tuple = {:?} ", gfg );

println!("at 0 index = {} ", gfg.0 );

println!("at 0 index = {} ", gfg.1 );

println!("at 0 index = {} ", gfg.2 );

println!("at 0 index = {} ", gfg.3 );



complete tuple = ("cp", "algo", "FAANG", "Data Structure") at 0 index = cp at 0 index = algo at 0 index = FAANG at 0 index = Data Structure 

Rust Type System:

In Rust, every variable, value, and item has a type. The type defines how much memory it is holding and which operation can be performed on the value. The below table states all the types in Rust:

Primitive TypesBoolean, Numeric, Textual, Never
Sequence TypesTuple, Array, Slice
User-defined TypesStruct, Enum, Union
Function TypesFunctions, Closures
Pointer TypesReferences, Raw pointers, Function pointers
Trait TypesTrait objects, Impl trait

Advantages and Disadvantages of Rust:


  1. Quick debugging and testing: Rust is a very fast language and supports quick and effective debugging.
  2. Rust supports more complex code as compared to other languages, so we can achieve more in less code.
  3. It enables cross-platform development.
  4. Ease of integration: Rust can be easily integrated with C and many other famous programming languages.
  5. Rust is safer than other programming languages.
  6. There is a wide community of developer which support Rust.


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  1. Due to complexity, it may take a longer time to learn Rust.
  2. In rust, code can be less efficient and also it takes more time to compile.
  3. As it is more complex, so it may take more time to complete apps written in Rust.
  4. It is a new language, so it will take more time to spread over and jobs in rust also may not be as much as in other popular programming languages.
  5. In some cases, rust can leak memory and become slower than a popular programming language.
  6. Hard to maintain due to its large code base.


Is rust language good for beginners? ›

Rust is definitely a better option to begin with than C++. If you want to dig into technical things, I'd say it is perfect. It is safer than C and simpler than C++ while being just as low-level.

What is the Rust programming language used for? ›

Rust is a low-level programming language with direct access to hardware and memory, which makes it a great solution for embedded and bare-metal development. You can use Rust to write operation systems or microcontroller applications.

Should I learn Rust or C++? ›

Here's the big hint – go with Rustlang. Sure, C++ has the lion's share of community support, and huge libraries, but Rust language is so much better in nearly every other way. Rust teaches you to code properly, and the tough love as a beginner is definitely appreciated by those further on in their careers.

Is Rust easier than C++? ›

Rust is far easier to learn than C++, but as the Recent Rust Developer Survey highlighted, very few people can currently code in Rust proficiently.

Is Rust a frontend or backend? ›

Rust is a backend development language that performs very close to C/C++ and solves another headache of C/C++ developers that is Memory Management. Rust is being used by many big companies like AWS, Cloudflare, Next. js, etc.

Can I directly learn Rust? ›

If you like learning by doing, then these are for you. Tour of Rust is a step by step guide through the features of the Rust programming language. It covers basics, basic control flow, basic data structure types, and Generic types. rustlings has small exercises to get you used to reading and writing Rust code.

What kind of language is Rust? ›

Rust is a multi-paradigm, general-purpose programming language. Rust emphasizes performance, type safety, and concurrency. Rust enforces memory safety—that is, that all references point to valid memory—without requiring the use of a garbage collector or reference counting present in other memory-safe languages.

Why is Rust called Rust? ›

TL;DR: Rust is named after a fungus that is robust, distributed, and parallel. It is also a substring of "robust".

Why Rust is the future? ›

Rust is the only 'safe' language which is also as fast as the native languages. That's it's key selling point. That's desirable for native developers since it's safer, and it's desirable for managed developers because it produces software that is faster and uses less memory.

Should I learn Python or Rust? ›

Python's integration capabilities also mean it can be easily adapted to many development project needs. Rust is better geared to system programming and specific use cases, with its higher learning curve making coding slightly more complex.

Should I learn Java or Rust? ›

When it comes to Java, this programming language is significantly slower than Rust. Rust delivers faster startup times and smaller memory footprint on top of it. Java uses Garbage Collection for memory management, which decreases performance.

Why is Rust so difficult? ›

So why Rust is so hard? Rust is a systems language. To be a systems PL, it is very important not to hide underlying computer memory management from a programmer. For this reason, Rust pushes programmers to expose many details that would be otherwise hidden in more high-level languages.

Is Rust difficult to learn? ›

Rust is considered difficult to learn by many people. Indeed, when I learned it, I considered it to be the hardest programming language up to that time I've met.

Is Rust as powerful as C++? ›

Conclusion. Both C++ and Rust are potentially excellent choices for your next project—with both having great performance, tooling, and community support. There is no obvious winner, but there is never a one-size-fits-all solution when we are talking about programming languages.

How long does it take to learn Rust? ›

How long does it take to learn Rust? It takes between three weeks to one year for users to become proficient with Rust. Experienced programmers learn Rust much faster than amateurs, just like with every other programming language.

Should I learn Rust or Python first? ›

Rust is a great language, but personally I would recommend going for Python. In my opinion, learning your first language isn't just about learning the syntax of that specific language. Instead, it's also about learning how to program, and how to solve problems programmatically.

Is it worth to learn Rust? ›

RUST is an excellent language to learn in 2022. It is fast, safe, concurrent, and portable. It also has great tooling and a thriving community. If you are looking for a systems programming language, RUST is the perfect choice.

Is C++ better than Rust? ›

If you are looking for a well-supported and framework-rich language, you will probably choose C++. In other cases, you might want your code to be extremely safe, avoid memory leaks and other undefined behavior then start learning Rust. It is said that Rust still lacks tools and frameworks.

Is Rust better than Python? ›

Rust is a more demanding language than Python. Its syntax is closer to that of low-level languages. That makes it probably not the best choice as the first technology to learn. The point has already been made that Python is not especially fast, but it could be said to be faster from a business perspective.


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