Part Programming with APT (2022)

Chapter: Automation, Production Systems, and Computer Integrated Manufacturing : Numerical Control

It is a three dimensional NC part programming system that was developed in the late 19508 and early 60s Today it remains an important and widely used language in the United States and around the world.

Part Programmingwith APT

In thissection, we present some of the basic principles and vocabulary of the APTlanguage. APT is anacronym that stands for Automatically Programmed Tooling. It is athree dimensional NC part programming system that was developed in the late19508 and early 60s (Historical Note 6.3). Today it remains an important andwidely used language in the United States and around the world. APT is alsoimportant because many of the concepts incorporated into it termed the basisfor other subsequently developed languages. APT was originally intended as acontouring language. but modern versions can be used for both point to point andcontouring operations in up to five axes. Our discussion will be limited to thethree linear axes, x, y, and z.APT can be used for a variety ofmachining operations.

Ourcoverage will concentrate on drilling (point to point) and milling (contouring)operations. There are more than 500 words in the APT vocabulary. Only a small(but important) fraction of the total lexicon will be covered here. TheAppendix to this chapter lists some of these important APT words.

Part Programming with APT (1)

Thereader must remember that the work described in this historical note wasstarted in the 1950s,a lime when digital computer technology was in itsinfancy, and so were the associated computer programming languages and methods.The APT project was a pioneering effort, not only io the development of NCtechnology, but also in computer programming concepts, computer graphics, andcomputeraided design (CAD).

It wasrecognized early in the NC development research at MIT that part programmingwould be a timeconsuming task in the application of the new technology, andthat there were opportunities to reduce the programming time by delegatingportions of the task to a genetaI_purpo.e computer. In June 1951, even beforethe first experimemal NC machine was operating, a study was undertaken toexplore how the digital computer might be used as a programming aid. The resultof this study was a recommendation that a set of computer programs be developedto perform the mathematical computations that otherwise would have to beaccomplished by the part programmer. In hindsight, the drawback of thisapproach was that, while it automated certain steps in the part programming task,the basic manual programming procedure was preserved

Thesignificant breakthrough in computerassisted part programming was thedevelopment of the automatically programmed 1001 system (APT) during the years19561959. It was the brainchild of mathematician Douglas Ross, who worked inthe MIT Servomechanisms Lab at the time. Ross envisioned a part programmingsystem in which (1) the user would prepare instructions for operating themachine tool using Englishlike words, (2) the digital computer would translatethese instructions into a language that the computer could understand andprocess. (3) the computer would carry out the arithmetic and geometriccalculations needed to execute the instructions. and (4) the computer wouldfurther process (postprocess) the instructiOn! 'u that they could beinterpreted by the machine tool controller. He further recognized that theprogramming system should be expandable for applications beyond thoseconsidered in the immediate research (milling applications).

Aroundthis time, the Aircraft Industries Association (AlA, renamed the AerospaceIndustries Assoclation in 1959) was attempting to deal with NC part programmingissues through its Subcommittee on Numerical Control (SNC). Ross was invited 10attend a meeting of the SNC in January 1957 to present his views oncomputerassisted part programming. The result 01 this meeting was that Rosa'swork at MIT was established as a focal poinl for NC programming within thc AlA,A project was initiated in Apri11957to develop a twodimensionill version ofAPT, with nine alrcrafr companies plus IBM Corporation participating in thejoint effort ami MIT as project coordinator. The 2DAPT system was ready forfield evaluation at plant, of participating companies in April 1958.Testing,debugging, am] refining the programming system took approximately threeyears.during which time the AlA assumed responsibllity for further APTdevelopment. In 1961, the Illinois Institute of Technology Rcsearch lnslituto;(lITRl) was selected by the AlA to become the agency responsiblefor longrange maintenance and upgrading of Al'T'In 1962,IITRI announcedcompletion of APTIII. a commercial version 01APT for threedimensional partprogramming. In 1974,APT was accepted as the U.S.standard for programming NCmetal cutting machine tools. In 1978,it was accepted by the ISO as theinternational standard.

One ofthe initial problems with APT when it was released in the early 1960swas that avery large computer was required 10execute it, thereby limiting the number ofcompanies that could use it Several part programming languages based directlyon APT were developed to address this problem. Two of the more importantAPTbased languages were ADAPT and EXAPT. ADAPT (ADaptation of APT) wasdeveloped by IBM under Air Force contract to include many of the features ofAPT bUI required a much smaller computer. ADAPT can be used for bothpointtopoint and contouring jobs. EXAPT (EXtended subset of APT) was anolher NCpart programming language based on APT. EXAPT was developed in Germany around1964in three versions',(1) EXAPT I was designed for pointtopoint applications,such as drilling and straight milling; (2) EXAPT 11was developed for turningoperations; and

(3) EXAPTIII was capable of limited contouring for milling.

APT isnot only a language; it is also the computer program that processes the APTstatements to calculate the corresponding cutter positions and generate themachine tool control commands. To program in APT. the part geometry must firstbe defined. Then the tool is directed to various point locations and alongsurfaces of the workpart to accomplish the required machining operations. Theviewpoint of the programmer is that the workpiece remains stationary and thetool is instructed to move relative to the part. To complete the program,speeds and feeds must be specified, tools must be called, tolerances must begiven for circular interpolation, and so forth. Thus, there are four basictypes of statements in the APT language:

Geometrystatements, also calleddefinition statements, are used to define the geometry elements thatcomprise the part.

Motion commandsare used to specify the tool path.

Post-processorstatements control the machine tool operation, for example, tospecify speeds and feeds, settolerance values for circular interpolation, and actuate other capabilities ofthe machine tool.

Auxiliary statements, a groupof miscellaneous statements used to name the part program, insert comments inthe program and accomplish similar functions.

Thesestatements arc constructed of APT vocabulary words, symbols. and numbers, allarranged using appropriate punctuation. APT vocabulary words consist of six orfewer characters. 1 he characters are almost always letters of the alphabet.Only a very few APT vocabulary words contain numerical digitsso few in factthat we will not encounter any of them in our treatment of APT in this chapter.Most APT statements include a slash (I) as part of the punctuation. APTvocabulary words that immediately precede the slash arc called major words. whereas those that followthe slash are called minor words.

Geometry Statements. Thegeometry of the part must be defined to identify the surfaces and features that are to be machined. Accordingly, thepoints, lines, and surfaces must be defined in the program prior to specifyingthe motion statements. The general form of an APT geometry statement is thefollowing:

Part Programming with APT (2)

An APTgeometry statement consists of three sections. The first is the symbol used toidentify the geometry element. A symbol can be any combination of six or feweral phabetical and numerical characters, at least one of which must be alphabetical.Also, the symbol cannot be an APT vocabulary word. Some examples are presentedin Table 6.12 to illustrate what is permissible as a symbol and what is not.The second section of the APT geometry statement is an APT major word thatidentifies the type of geometry element. Examples are POINT, LINE, CIRCLE, andPLANE. The third section of the APT geometry statement provides the descriptivedata that define the element precisely, completely, and uniquely. These datamay include numerical values to specify dimensional and position data,previously defined geometry dements, and APT minor words.

Punctuationin an APT geometry statement is indicated in Eq. (6.3). The definitionstatement is written as an equation, the symbol being equated to the geometryelement type, followed by a slash with descriptive data to the right of theslash. Commas are used

toseparate the words and numerical valuesin the descriptive data.

There arca variety of ways lu spectry the various geometry elements. The Appendix tothis chapter presents a sampling of statements for defining the geometryelements we

Part Programming with APT (3)

will beusing in our treatment of APT: poiuts.Iines, planes, and circles. The readermay benefit from a few examples:


PI"' POINI!2IJ.U,40.U,60.0

where thedescriptive data following the slash indicate the X·, yo, and zcoordinates.The specification can be done in either inches or millimeters (metric). We usemetric values in our examples. As an alternative, a point can be defined as theintersection of two mtersecrmg lines, as in the following


where theAPT word INTOF in the descriptive data stands for "intersection of."Other methods of defining points are given in the Appendix under POINT

Lines.A linedefined in APT is considered to be of infinite lengtb in hoth directions. Also, APTtreats a line as a vertical plane that is perpendicular to the .rj' plane. TheeasiCStway to specify a line is by two points through which it passes:

L3 = LINE/P3. P4

In somesituations, the part programmer may find it more convenient to define a newline as being parallel to another line that has been previously defined; forexample,


wherePARLEL is APT's way of spelling "parallel."The statement indicate,line l4 passes through point PS and is parallel to line L3.

Planes.A plauecan be defined by specifying three points through which the plane passevasinthe following'


Ofcourse. the three points must he noncollinear. A plane can also be defined asbeing parallel to another plane that has been previously defined; for instance,


whichstates that plane PL2 passes tbrough point P2 and is parallel to plane PLI. InAPT, a plane extends indefinitely.

Circles. In APT, a circle is considered to be a cylindrical surface thatis pcrpendic

ular tothe xj plane and extends to infinity in the zdircction. The easiest way todefine a circle i~ by itscenter and radius. as in the following


Byconvention. the circle is located in the .e.y plane. An alternative way ofdefining a circle i~tospecify thur it passes through three points; for example,

C2 = CIRCLE/P4, P5, P6

where thethree points must not he collinear There are m;'lny other ways to define a ciretc, several of which are listed in theAppendix under CIRCLE

(Video) CNC//APT Programming//Geometry Statements

Certain ground rulesmust he obeyed when formulating APT geometry statements.

Following are four important APT rules:

t. Coordinate data must be specified in the order x, then y, then z, because the statement

PI = POINT/20.5,40,O,60.0

isinterpreted to mean x =20.5 mm,y =40.0 mm.and e = 60.0 mm

Anysymbols used as descriptive data must have been previously defined; for example.Inthe statement


the twolines Ll and L2 must have been previously defined. In setting up the list ofgeometry statements, the APT programmer must be sure to define symbols beforeusing them in subsequent statements.

A symbolcan be used to define only one geometry element. The same symbol cannot be usedto define two different elements. For example. the following statements wouldbe incorrect if they were included in the same program:

Pl = POINTI20,40,60

PI = POINT 130,50,70

Only onesymbol can be used to define any given element. For example, the following twostatements in the same r"rt program would be incorrect;

PI =POINTI20,40,60

P2 =POINT/20,40,60

EXAMPLE 6.3 Part Geometry Using APT

Let usconstruct the geometry of our sample part in Figure 6.15. The geometry dementsof the part to be defined in APT are labeled in Figure 6.18. Reference is alsomade to Figure 6.16, which shows the coordinate values of the points used todimension the part. Only the geometry statements are given in the APT sequencethat follows:

PI = POINT 10,0,0

P2 = POiNT/160.0,O,O

P3 = PUINT /,0



P6 = POINT/,0

P7 =POINT /,0

P8 =POINT /,0

L1 = LINE/Pl,P2

L2 = LINE/P2, P3


L3 = L1NE/1'4, PARLEL, L1

L4 = LINE/P4, PI

Motion Commands. All APTmotion statements follow a common fonnat,just as geometry statements have their own format. The format of an APTmotion command is'

MOTION COMMAND/descriptive data (6.4)

Anexample of an APT motion statement is


I'hestatement consists of two sections separated by a slash. The first section isthe basic command that indicates what move the tool should make. Thedescriptive data following the slash tell the tool where to go. In the above example, the tool isdirected to go to (GOTO) point PI, which has been defined in a previousgeometry statement.

At thebeginning of the sequence of motion statements, the tool must be given II starting point. This is likelyto be the target point. the location where the operator has positioned the toolat the start of the job.The part programmer keys into this starting positionwith the following statement:


whereFROM is anAPT vocabulary word indicating that this is the initial point fromwhich all others will be referenced; and PTARO is the symbol assigned to thestarting point. Another way to make this statement is the following'

FROMj20.0. 20.0,0

where thedescriptive data in this case arc the X, y, and zcoordinates of the starting point. The FROM statementoccurs only at the start of the motion sequence.

In ourdiscussion of APT motion statements, it is appropriate to distinguish between pointtopoint motions and contouringmotions. For potnrtopoiru motions,there are onl two commands: GOTQ and GODLTA.The GOTO statement instructs thetool to go to a particular point location specified in the descriptive data.TWo examples are:

GOTOIP2 (6.6,)

001'0/25.0,40,0,0 (6.6b)

In thefirst command, P2 is the destination or the too] point. In the second command,the 1001 has been instructed to go to the location whose coordinates are x =25.0, Y = 40.0, and z = O.

TheGODLTA command specifies an incremental move for the tool.To illustrate, thefollowing statement instructs the tool to move from its present position by adistance of 50.0 mm in the xdirection, 120.0 mm in the ydirection, and 40 rumin the zdirection

GODLTA!50.0, 120.0, 40.0

The GODLYA statement is useful in drilling and related machining operations. The toolcan be directed to go to a given hole location; then the GODLTA command can beused to drill the hole, as in the following sequence:


GODLTA/[), 0, 50.0

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Contouringmotion commands are more complicated than PTP commands are because the tool'sposition must be continuously controlled throughout the move. To exercise thiscontrol. the tool is directed along two intersecting surfaces until it reachesa third surface, as shown in Figure 6.20. These three surfaces have specificnames in APT; they are:

Drive surface. This is the surface thatguides the side of the cutler. It is pictured as II plane in our figure.

Part surface. This is the surface, againpictured as a plane, on which the bottom or nose of the tool is guided.

Part Programming with APT (4)

Check;surface. This is the surface that stops the forward motion of the tool in theexecution of the current command. One might say that this surface"checks" the advance of the tool.

It shouldbe noted here that the "part surface" mayor may not be an actualsurface of the part The part programmer may elect to use an actual part surfaceor some other previously defined surtace for the purpose of maintainingcontinuous path control of the tool. The same qualification goes for the drivesurface and check surface.

There areseveral ways in which the check surface can be used. Ifus is determined byusing any of four APT modifier words in the descriptive data of the motionstatemen!. The four modifier words arc TO, ON, PAST. and TANTO. As depicted inFigure 0.21, the word TO positions the leading edge of the tool in contact withthe check surface; ON positions the center of the tool on the check surface;and PAST puts the tool beyond the check surface. so that its trailing edge isin contact with the check surface. The fourth modifier word TANTO is used whenthe drive surface is tangent to a circular check surface, as in Figure 6.22.TANTO moves the cutting tool to the point of tangency with the circular surface

An APTcontouring motion command causes the cutter to proceed along a trajectorydefined by the drive surface and part surface; when the tool reaches the checksurface it stops according to one of the modifier words TO, ON, PAST, or TANTO.In writing a

Part Programming with APT (5)

Figure 6.23Use of the APT motion words. The tool has moved from a previous position10 its present position. Thedirection of the next move isdetermined by one of the APT motionwords GOLFT. GORGT, GOFWD, GOBACK, GDUP,or GODOWN.

Part Programming with APT (6)

motionstatement, the part programmer must keep in mind the direction from which thetool is coming in the preceding motion command. The programmer must pretend tobe riding on top of the tool, as if driving a car. After the tool reaches thecheck surface in the preceding move, does the next move involve a right tum orleft tum or what? The answer to this question is determined by one of thefollowing six motion words, whose interpretations are illustrated in Figure6.23:

GOLIT commandsthe tool to make a left tumrelative to tbe last move.

GORGT commandsthe tool to make a right tum relativeto the last move.

GOFWD commandsthe tool to move forward relativeto the last move.

GOBACK commandsthe tool to reversedirection relative to the last move.

GOUP commandsthe tool to move upwardrelative to the last move

GODOWN commandsthe tool to move down relative tothe last move.

In manycases, the next move will be in a direction that is a combination of two puredirections. Forexample, the direction might be somewhere between go forward andgo right. In these cases, the proper motion command would designate the largestdirection component among the choices available.

Part Programming with APT (7)

To beginthe sequence of motion commands, the FROM statement,Eq. (6.5) is used in thesame manner as for pointtopotnt moves. The statement following the FROM commanddefines the initial drive surface. part surface, and check surface. Withreference to Figure 6.24. the sequence takes the following form:


oo/ro,flLl, TO. PL2, TO PL3 (6.7)

Thesymbol PTAR.G represents the target point w~ere the ?perator has. set up thetool. The GO command Instructs the tool to move to the mtersecnon of the drivesurface (PL1), the part surface (PL2), and the check surface (PL3). Because themodifier word TO has been used for each of the three surfaces, thecircumference of the cutter is tangent to PLI and PL3. and the bottom of the cutleris on PL2. The three surfaces included in the GO statement must be specified inthe order: (I) drive surface, (2) part surface, and (3)checksurlacc

Note thatGO/TO is not the same as the 001'0 command. Eq. (6.6). 001'0 is used only forJYrp motions. The GO/ command is used to initialize a sequence of contouringmotions and may take alternative forms such as GO/ON, GorrO, or GOIPAST.

Afterinitia'ization, the tool is directed along its path by one of the six motioncommand words. It is [Jot necessary to redefine the part surface in everymotion command after it has been initially defined as long as it remains thesame in subsequent commands. In the preceding motion command, Pq. (6.7), thecutter has been directed from P"IARG to lhe interscction of surfaces PLI,PL2, and PL3. Suppose it is now desired to move the tool along planc PL3 inFigure 6.24, with PL2 lCllw.i"ing a~ the pan surface. The followingcommand would accomplish this motion:


Note thatPL2 is not mentioned in this new command. PD, which was the check surface inthe preceding command, Eq. (6.7), is the drive surface in the new command. Andthe new check surface is PL4. Although the part surface may remain the samethroughout the motion sequence. the drive surface and check surface must beredefined in each new contouring motion command.

There arcmany parts whose features can all be defined in two axes, x and y. Although suchparts certainly possess a third dimension, there are no features to be machinedin this direction. Our sample part is a case in point. In the engineeringdrawing, Figure 6.15, the sides of the part appear as lines, although they lirethreedimensional surfaetls on the physical part. In cases like this, it is moreconvenient for the programmer to define the pan profile in terms of lines andcircles rather than planes and cylinders. Fortunately, the APT language systemallows this because in APT, lines me treated as planes and circles are treat.ed as cylinders, which are both perpendicular to the ry plane. Hence, the planes around the part outline in Figure 6.15can be replaced by lines (call them Ll, L2, L3, and L4), and the APT commandsin Bqs (6.7) and (6.8) can be replaced by the following:


oo/ro. Ll,TO, PL2, TO L3


Substitutionof lines and circles for planes and cylinders in APT is allowed onlv when thesides of the pall are perpendicular to the xyplane. Note that plane PL2 has not been converted to a line. As the "partsurface" in the motion statement, it must maintain its status as a planeparallel to the .r and yaxes,

EXAMPLE 6.4 APT Contouring Molion Commands

LetU~write the AM' motion commands to profile mill the outside edges of our sampleworkpart. The geometry clements are labeled in Figure 6,18, and the too! pathis shown in Figure 6.17. The tool begins its motion sequence from a targetpoint PTARG located at x = 0, y = 50 mm and l = 10 rnm. We also assume that"part surface" PL2 has been defined as a plane parallel to the xyplane and located 25 mm below the top surface of the part (Figure 6.16), Thereason for defining it this way is to ensure that the cutter will machine theentire thickness of the part.


GO/TO. L1, TO, PL2. ON,L4







Postprocessor andAuxiliary Statements. A complete APTpart program must

includefunctions not accomplished by geometry statements and motion commands. Theseadditional functions are implemented by postprocessor statements and auxiliarystatements.

Postprocessors[{]/emenls control the operation of the machine tool and playa supporting rolein generating the tool path. Such statements are used to define cutter size,

specifyspeeds and feeds, turn coolant flow on and off,and control other features ofthe par

(Video) Milling Operation Using APT Programming Language| APT| Learn for Dreams

ticular machinetool on which the machining job will be performed. The general form of a

postprocessor statementis the following:

POSTPROCESSOR COMMAND/descriptive data (6.9)

where thePOSTPROCESSOR COMMAND i~an APT major word indicating the type of function oraction to be accomplished, and the descriptive data consists of APT minor wordsand numerical values. In some commands. the descriptive data is omitted. Someexarnples of postprocessor statements that appear in the Appendix at the end ofthe chapter arc the following:

llNITSiMMindicates that the specified units used in the program an: INCHESor Mlv1.

INTOL/O.02 specifiesinward tolerance for circularinterpolation.

OUTTOLjO.02 specifiesoutward tolerance for circularinterpolation.

eUTTERj20.0 defines cutter diameter fortool path offset calculations; the length and other dimensions of the tool canalso be specified, if necessary, for threedimension, at machining.

SPINDLjlOOO, CLW specifies spindlerotation speed in revolutions per minute. Either CLW (clockwise) or eeLW(counterclockwise) can be specified

SPINDLIOFF stopsspindle rotation.

FED RAT /40, IPM specifies feed rate in millimeters per minute or inches per minute.Minor words IPM or IPR are used to indicate whether the feed rate is units perminute or units per revolution of the cutter, where the units are specified asinches or millimeters in a preceding UNITS statement.

RAPID engagesrapid traverse (high feed rate) ror nexc movers}.

COOLNT/FLOOD turns CUlling fluidon

LOADTL/Olused with automatic toolchangers to identify which cutting tool should beloaded into the spindle

DELAY /30temporarily stops the machine{Qol [or a period specified in seconds.

Auxiliary slatfment.~ are usedto identify the part program, specify which postprocessor to usc. insert remarks into the program, and so on. Auxiliarystatements have no effect on the generation of tool path. The following APTwords used in auxiliary statements are defined in the Appendix:

PARTNO isthe first statement in an APT program, used to identify Ihe program; fUI example,


MACHIN!permits the part programmer to specify the postprocessor, which in effectspecifies the machine tool.

CLPRJ\Tstands for "cutter location print," which is used to print out thecutter location sequence

REMARK isused to insert explanatory comments into the program that are not interpretedor processed by the APT processor.

FINl indicatesthe end of an APT program.

The majorword MACHIN reqnires a slash (I) as indicated in our list above, withdescriptive data that idemify the postprocessor to be used. Words such asCLPRNT and FINI are complete without descriptive data. PAKTNO and REW.ARK havea format that is an exception to the normal APT statement structure. These arewords that are followed by descriptive data, but without a slash separating theAPT word from the descriptive data. PARTNO ts used at the very beginning of thepart program and is followed by a series of alphanumeric characters that labelthe program. REMARK permits the programmer to insert comments that the APTprocessor does not process,

SomeAPT Part Programming Examples. As examples of APT, we willprepare two part programs for our sample part, one to drill the three holes andthe second to profile mill the outside edges. As in our example programs inSection 6.5.2, the starting workpiece is an aluminum plate of the desiredthickness, and its perimeter has been rough cut slightly oversized inanucipauon uf the profile millillg operation. Tn effect, these APT programswill accomplish the same operations as previous Examples 6.1 and 6.2 in whichmanual part programming was used.

EXAMPLE 6.5 DrillingSequence in APT

let uswrite the APT program to perform the drilling sequence for our sample part inFigure 6.15. We will show the APT geometry statements only for the three holelocations, saving the remaining elements of geometry for Example 6.6





REMARK Part geometry. Points are defined 10 mm above part surface.

PTARG = POINT/0,50.0, 10.0

P5 =POINT /70.0,30.0,10.0

P6 = POTNT/120.0,3D.O, 10.0

P7 = POINT/70.0,60J1, 10.0

REMARKDrill bit motion statcmenh






GODLlA/O,O, 25

GODLTAjO,0, 25






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GODLTA/o,0, 25




FED RAT 10.05, IPR


GODLTA/O, 0,25





EXAMPLE 6.6 TwoAxis Profile Milling in APT

The threeholes drilled in Example 6.5 will be used for locating and holding the workpart for milling the outside edges. Axis coordinates are given in Figure 6.i6.The top surface of the part is 40 mm above the surface of the machine table. A20mm diameter end mill with four teeth and a side tooth engagement of 40 mmwill be used. The bottom tip of the cutter will be positioned 25 mm below thetop surface during machining, thus ensuring that the side cutting edges of thecutter will cut the full thickness of the part. Spindle speed « 1000 rev/min and feed rate = 50 mm/min. The tool path, shownin Figure 6.17, is the same as that followed in Example 6.2.






REMARKPart geometry. Points and lines are defined 25 nun below part top surface


PI = POINT/0,0, 25

P2 = POINT/I60,0,25

P3 =POINT /160,60,25

P4 POINT/35,90,25

P8 =POINT/130.60,25

Ll = LINE/PI, P2

L2 =LINE/P2, P3



L4 = LINEIP4, P1

PLl = PLANE/PI, P2. P4

REMARK Millingcutter motion statements.






GOLFr/L2. TANTO, (:1








Study Material, Lecturing Notes, Assignment, Reference, Wiki description explanation, brief detail

Automation, Production Systems, and Computer Integrated Manufacturing : Numerical Control : Part Programming with APT |


Is APT programming still used? ›

APT is obsolete, not used any more. Programming today is done manually (if the part is simple) or using CAM software with a graphical user interface.

What are the steps involved in APT program? ›

The APT language consists of four types of statements. Geometry statements will be used to specify the elemental features defining the part shape. Motion statements are used to specify the path taken by the tool. Post-processor statements control the machinery, controlling coolants as well as the feeds and speeds.

What is APT explain with suitable example? ›

2a : having a tendency : likely plants apt to suffer from drought. b : ordinarily disposed : inclined apt to accept what is plausible as true. 3 : suited to a purpose especially : being to the point an apt quotation. 4 : keenly intelligent and responsive an apt pupil.

What is automatic part programming? ›

Automatic programming is a type of computer programming where program code is automatically generated by another program based on certain specifications. A program that writes more code is written, which then goes on and creates more programs.

Who developed APT? ›

The arbitrage pricing theory was developed by the economist Stephen Ross in 1976, as an alternative to the capital asset pricing model (CAPM).

What is ATP in CNC? ›

Automatically programmed tool (ATP)

How do I create a CNC part program? ›

Here are six planning steps to complete before producing a new program.
  1. Step 1: Determine the machining operations to be performed. ...
  2. Step 2: Decide the machining order. ...
  3. Step 3: Do the math. ...
  4. Step 4: Consider the workholding device. ...
  5. Step 5: Consider the cutting tools. ...
  6. Step 6: Write the documentation.
16 Mar 2020

What is an APT statement? ›

apt means to the point and particularly appropriate: an apt comment. pertinent means pertaining to the matter in hand: a pertinent remark. relevant means directly related to and important to the subject: a relevant opinion.

What is manual part programming? ›

In manual part programming, the processing instructions are documented on a form called a part program manuscript. The manuscript is a listing of the positions of the tool relative to the work piece that the machine must follow in order to perform the processing.

What does APT mean in Linux? ›

Advanced Package Tool, more commonly known as APT, is a collection of tools used to install, update, remove, and otherwise manage software packages on Debian and its derivative operating systems, including Ubuntu and Linux Mint.

When was APT created? ›

APT was introduced in 1998 and original test builds were circulated on IRC. The first Debian version that included it was Debian 2.1, released on 9 March 1999.

What is macro in APT? ›

A Macro variables can be used to represent other unsubscripted APT symbols, vocabulary words (except for the fixed-field Words and the word CALL), or numbers. They cannot be used to represent statement labels, subscripted symbols, or arithmetic expressions.

What are the types of part programming? ›

Hence the methods of part programming can be of two types depending upon the two techniques as below : (a) Manual part programming, and (b) Computer aided part programming. The programmer first prepares the program manuscript in a standard format.

What is difference between manual part programming and CAPP? ›

This is Expert Verified Answer

In manual part programming, the programming is done is done manually by humans using low-level machine language. In computer-assisted part programming, the programming is done by the computer.

What are the types of guideways? ›

Three basic types of guide ways can support linear motion between machine tool components: rolling-element, hydrostatic and plain sliding ways.

What are the advantages of APT? ›

APT concentrates more on risk factors instead of assets. This gives it an advantage over CAPM simply because you do not have to create a similar portfolio for risk assessment. While CAPM assumes that assets have a straightforward relationship, APT assumes a linear connection between risk factors.

What are the limitations of APT? ›

The limitation of APT is that the theory does not suggest factors for a particular stock or asset (Bodie and Kane). The investors have to perceive the risk sources or estimate factor sensitivities. In practice, one stock would be more sensitive to one factor than another.

Is APT a package manager? ›

Advanced Package Tool, more commonly known as APT, is a package management system for Ubuntu, Debian, Kali Linux, and other Debian-based Linux distributions. It acts as a front-end to the lower-level dpkg package manager, which is used for installing, managing, and providing information on . deb packages.

What is the difference between NC and CNC? ›

NC stands for Numerical Control whereas CNC stands for Computer Numerical Control. In NC Machine the programs are fed into the punch cards. But in CNC machine the programs are fed directly into the computer with the help of a small keyboard similar to our traditional keyboard.

What is CNC programming? ›

CNC programming (Computer Numerical Control Programming) is utilized by manufacturers to create program instructions for computers to control a machine tool. CNC is highly involved in the manufacturing process and improves automation as well as flexibility.

What is machining center in CNC? ›

A machining center is an CNC machine that can mill, drill, bore, tap, and perform various other work all without changing the attachment of the work piece. It can automatically bring several various different tools to the work location. Main Spindle. Table Feed Shaft. ATC Systems.

Which format is used to write the CNC part program? ›

Word address is the most common programming format used for CNC programming systems.

Which format is used for CNC part programming? ›

The CNC file will often be in a format called 'G Code', which is used to control the movements of the CNC Mill.

Which software is used in CNC machine? ›

CAD/CAM software controls CNC machines like mills, routers, lathes, and wire EDMs. CAD stands for computer-aided design, and CAM stands for computer-aided manufacturing.

How do I use word APT? ›

apt adjective (LIKELY)

to be likely to do something or to often do something: The kitchen roof is apt to (= likely to) leak when it rains.

Why are APT attacks so successful? ›

They're highly targeted and have a long lead time where hacker groups take the time to learn about their target and find the best way to enter their environment. APT attacks are designed to hide and lurk in a victim's network for weeks, months, and potentially even years.

What is full form APT? ›

Apartment, sometimes abbreviated APT.

Why do we need part programming? ›

The part program is a sequence of instructions, which describe the work, which has to be done on a part, in the form required by a computer under the control of computer numerical control (CNC) software. It is the task of preparing a program sheet from a drawing sheet.

How do I write an NC program? ›

Program Number — Enter a number to the start of the NC program file.
The NC Program dialog is available by:
  1. Clicking NC Program tab > Create panel > Create.
  2. Clicking NC Program tab > Edit panel > Settings.
  3. Selecting Settings on an individual NC Program menu.
  4. Selecting Create NC Program on the NC Programs menu.
7 Nov 2021

What is the most popular language for NC programming? ›

G-code which has many variants, is the common name for the most widely used numerical control (NC) programming language. It is used mainly in computer-aided manufacturing to control automated machine tools. G-code is sometimes called G programming language, not to be confused with Lab VIEW's G programming language.

What is the difference between NC and CNC? ›

NC stands for Numerical Control whereas CNC stands for Computer Numerical Control. In NC Machine the programs are fed into the punch cards. But in CNC machine the programs are fed directly into the computer with the help of a small keyboard similar to our traditional keyboard.

What is APT in CAD? ›

APT (Automatically Programmed Tool) is a high-level computer programming language most commonly used to generate instructions for numerically controlled machine tools.

When was APT created? ›

APT was introduced in 1998 and original test builds were circulated on IRC. The first Debian version that included it was Debian 2.1, released on 9 March 1999.

Is APT a package manager? ›

Advanced Package Tool, more commonly known as APT, is a package management system for Ubuntu, Debian, Kali Linux, and other Debian-based Linux distributions. It acts as a front-end to the lower-level dpkg package manager, which is used for installing, managing, and providing information on . deb packages.


Programmable Logic Controller (PLC): The PLC handles all logical operations of a CNC system. It is closely coupled with the CNC kernel and enables to realize complex process sequences that involve different actors and sensors of the machine next to the machine's drives.

What is part programming in CNC? ›

The part program is a sequence of instructions, which describe the work, which has to be done on a part, in the form required by a computer under the control of computer numerical control (CNC) software. It is the task of preparing a program sheet from a drawing sheet.

What is M code and G code? ›

M code is the machine control language that controls the overall program, often called G code. While G commands describe positions, M code directs the machine's actions. While M represents miscellaneous codes, some refer to it as machine code because it controls particular operations of the equipment.

What is the full form of APT? ›

Apartment, sometimes abbreviated APT.

What is an APT statement? ›

apt means to the point and particularly appropriate: an apt comment. pertinent means pertaining to the matter in hand: a pertinent remark. relevant means directly related to and important to the subject: a relevant opinion.

Which of the following is not a programming language? ›

LASER is not a programming language for computers. As all other options are examples of real programming languages such as BASIC, FORTRAN, and PASCAL. This is because the programming language is an understandable computer communication language.

Where are apt-get files stored? ›

Show activity on this post. apt-file stores its indexes alongside the other apt indexes, in /var/lib/apt/lists by default. Look for the files with “Contents” in their name.

How do I install things with apt? ›

How to use apt to install programs from command line in Debian 11
  1. Using apt for installing programs. ...
  2. Step 1: Add repository. ...
  3. Step 2: Update sources. ...
  4. Step 3: Install a package using apt-get using apt-get install. ...
  5. Step 4: Verify installation. ...
  6. Use apt to upgrade packages. ...
  7. Remove packages.
6 Apr 2022

How do I host my apt repository? ›

To create an apt repository you need to perform the following steps:
  1. Install dpkg-dev utility.
  2. Create a repository directory.
  3. Put deb files into the repository directory.
  4. Create a file that apt-get update can read.
  5. Add info to your sources. list pointing at your repository.
2 Jan 2020

Should I use snap or apt? ›

Snap is, at time of publication, associated primarily with Ubuntu, and although it can run on other distributions, it's not installed by default. If you want to create packages to use across multiple Linux distributions, apt is a better choice.

What is sudo apt in Linux? ›

sudo apt-get update and sudo apt-get upgrade are two commands you can use to keep all of your packages up to date in Debian or a Debian-based Linux distribution. They're common commands for Linux admins and people doing DevOps, but are handy to know even if you don't use the command line often.

Where does apt-get packages from? ›

They are installed from a trusted pool. Advanced and freely available applications which needed for majority of the functions in computing are in that pool. You can select and install from either Software Center or running sudo apt-get install [PACKAGENAME] command.


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3. {ए पी टी} APT | Automatically programmed tool (HINDI), with numerical LEC-01,BY SAURABH SIR | STUDY
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